FOURTH U.S. INFANTRY REGIMENT: HOME of HEROES

4th Infantry, 4th Infantry Regiment, Warrior Battalion 1/4, INF 2/4 INF, 3/4 INF,

4th Infantry Regiment - 1848-1856

1st Battalion 4th Infantry Regiment

2nd Battalion 4th Infantry Regiment

3rd Battalion 4th Infantry Regiment 

At the finish of the war the 4th Infantry left from Vera Cruz, and reached Camp Jeff Davis, Pasqualoua, Mississippi on 23 July 1848. The regiment was ordered to proceed by sea to New York and to take station at several different points on the lakes, between Mackinac and Plattsburgh. Ordinary garrison duties were performed until June 1852.

The regiment was consolidated at Fort Columbus, New York to board the SS Ohio and travel to Aspinwall, on the Isthmus of Panama on 5 July 1852. Their mission was to travel across the Isthmus of Panama and set up camp on the Pacific coast to protect early settlers of the Pacific Northwest. After a long journey on the overcrowded ship (1,100 officers, men and camp followers) the regiment safely reached Aspinwall on 16 July 1852. The rainy season was at its height on the Isthmus and cholera was raging. Transportation was lacking for the trip across the Isthmus of Panama, the jungles, mountains, and rivers were difficult to cross; and cholera decimated the organization as well as the families who accompanied the men. The total deaths from cholera, fever, and allied diseases from the time the regiment arrived on the Isthmus to a few weeks after the arrival at Benica on the west coast, amounted to one officer and 106 enlisted men.

On arrival on the Pacific coast, the regiment was distributed among many small posts. Vancouver Barracks, Fort Townsend, Fort Hoskins, Fort Humbolt, Fort Dalles, Fort Steilecoom, Fort Jones, Fort Boise, Fort Lane, Fort Reading, Fort Yamhill, Orford, Fort Walla Walla, Crook, Fort Ter-Waw, Fort Cascades, Fort Simcoe, Fort Gaston, Chehalis, Fort Yuma, and Fort Mohave were all garrisoned and many of them built by the 4th Infantry at some time between 1852 and 1861.

 Major Granville O. Haller

(January 31, 1819 – May 2, 1897)

Major Granville O. Haller of the 4th Infantry led an expedition from Fort Dalles into central Washington, and Lieutenant William A. Slaughter also of the 4th Infantry with forty-eight men from Fort Steilacoom crossed Natchez Pass to aid Major Haller when attempts to move the Indians of Puget Sound onto reservations caused trouble between them and some white settlers. Captain Maloney of the 4th Infantry, and Captain Gilmore Hayes of the Washington Volunteers had started for Yakima via Natchez Pass when they were overtaken on 29 October 1855 by the Nisqually tribe under Chief Leschi. Lt. Slaughter and his men plus Captain Hayes' force met the Indians at the crossing of the White River, and on 4 November 1855 fought without decisive results. The following day the troops met hostiles in the difficult country between the White and Green Rivers. The troops fell back into the valleys and on 24 November 1855, Lt. Slaughter, commanding a platoon of the 4th Infantry and a company of volunteers, was attacked in his camp at Puyallup. The lieutenant moved to the present site of Auburn and here again the Indians attacked. Slaughter and two corporals of the volunteer company were killed, four other men were injured, one later dying of his wounds. For years the town, which sprang up on this site, was known as Slaughter in honor of this officer of the 4th Infantry; it was later changed to Auburn.

During the hostilities many settlers had taken refuge at Fort Steilacoom, the woman and children being left there, while the men enrolled in the volunteers. Ezar Meeker, one of the settlers, paid the following tribute to First Lieutenant John Nugen of the Fourth Infantry, commanding Fort Steilacoom while Captain Maloney was in the field.

"It would be a pleasure, could I but know he was alive, to even yet thank that kind and considerate gentleman, Lt. Nugen, for his forbearance and energetic efforts to contribute to the safety and comfort of the panic-stricken citizens. By improvising temporary quarters for his force most of whom, however, were placed on guard duty, room was provided in the soldier's barracks for the woman and children, while the men were placed on guard with what few soldiers were left."

Hostile tribes attacked Seattle on 26 January 1856, and two settlers were killed. Meanwhile the regular forces were augmented by additional companies of the 4th Infantry from Vancouver Barracks and by three companies of the 9th Infantry. On 12 February 1856, they moved from Fort Steilacoom and were joined by Chief Patknim with friendly Indians. This force advanced against the hostiles at Mucleshoot, losing one man and nine wounded, in a second battle on the White River overrunning the Indian encampment. Leshi retreated through Natches Pass and surrendered to Colonel. Wright, the commanding officer of the 4th Infantry, who had been conducting a vigorous campaign against the Yakima Indians and their allies, while the action in the west was occurring.

By the close of the Leschi War, the 4th Infantry included in its present and past roster of officers such as Robert C. Buchanan, Christopher C. Auqur, Alden, William Wallace Smith Bliss, Ulysses S. Grant, Phillip Sheridan, Henry M. Judah, Delancey-Floyd Jones, R.N. Scott, Lewis Cass Hunt, Granville O. Haller, Henry C. Hodges, Waller, Davis Allen Russell, Henry Prince, Benjamin Alvord, August Kautz, Robert Macfeeley and George Crook. Many of these officers would later serve in the American Civil War.

In 1859, General William S. Harney ordered the occupation of San Juan Island as part of the territory of the United States. Three companies of the Fourth Infantry and one of the Ninth, under the command of Captain George Pickett, did the occupying. The British commander had under his command five men-of-war with 167 guns, and 2,000 sailors and marines. The British invited an officer of the Fourth to an official party of courtesy aboard the flagship. The American made a remark concerning a battle in the ongoing Second Italian War of Independence.

"I presume," he asked, "that you refer to the battle of Magenta, Major?"
"No, sir. I spoke of the second engagement of the campaign, some weeks after Magenta."
"Hm-m, and how have such late advices reached you?"
"By courier from our Department of State, sir."

It was September 1859; Magenta had been fought 4 June. The British, thus believed the Americans had more current information. With the memory of Pakenham's losses at New Orleans (in a battle fought after the war was ended) fresh in their minds, the British decided to wait. As it happened, the English commander was really the best informed man on the scene, as was proved by the subsequent arrival of General Winfield Scott with orders which vetoed General Harney's decision. The San Juan troops were quietly withdrawn, without bloodshed.

This incident in Puget Sound is called the Pig War.

The History of Fort Steilacoom

By John McPherson

Expansion of the Fort
(1853–55)

Fort Steilacoom grew in size and importance with the arrival of two companies of the 4th Infantry Regiment in 1853. In 1854, soldiers from these companies were detached to assist in survey and road-building work throughout the Puget Sound Region and across the Cascades through Naches Pass. These troops also aided in protecting the property and personal safety of recently-arrived American settlers.

The autumn of 1855 saw significant activity for the post. Recently signed treaties gave rise to an Indian insurgency on both sides of the Cascades. Following a series of murders in the White River Valley (located north of the fort), Fort Steilacoom served as a temporary refuge for settlers fleeing the carnage and threat of violence.

Steilacoom was seriously undermanned at this time; most of its troop complement had taken the field. Skirmishing and patrols of both Regulars and Volunteer troops took place during the autumn of 1855. Ft. Steilacoom took on the appearance of a fort under siege. It was in December 1855 that Ft. Steilacoom lost one of its favorite officers, Lt. William Alloway Slaughter in an ambush along the Green River. Lt. Slaughter, and two of his enlisted soldiers, were brought back to the post for burial in the midst of a full-scale insurgency.

San Juan Island “Pig War” & the Military Road
(1859–60)

Fort Steilacoom was nearly emptied of all of its troops as a result of the so-called "Pig War" of the summer and autumn of 1859. This boundary dispute involving the San Juan Islands gave rise to a massive build-up of American troops on the southern tip of San Juan Island.

Initially, only one company of 9th Infantry troops under the command of Capt. George Pickett had been ordered to establish a presence on the island. When confronted with the overwhelming superiority of firepower and numbers of the British Navy in the vicinity, Pickett hastily called for reinforcements. His request was granted in the form of nearly 500 artillery, infantry, and engineer troops under the command of Lt. Col. Silas Casey.

Upon arriving on the island, Casey wisely moved the camp started by Pickett to a less-exposed position, he began the construction of a redoubt intended for large guns, and he engaged in friendly, diplomatic conversation with his British counterparts anchored offshore.

The American encampment and redoubt project lasted only a short time. By November 1860, negotiations involving General Winfield Scott and British Governor James Douglas settled on the placement of a company-sized element from both countries on either end of the island. The first American company to be stationed on the island at the conclusion of negotiations was Company C of the 4th Infantry from Ft. Steilacoom. This company was commanded by Captain Lewis Cass Hunt and Lt. Arthur Schaaf while on the island until it was withdrawn and replaced in April 1860 by Captain Pickett’s company of the 9th Infantry. In 1861, Ft. Steilacoom would provide another company to the island’s defense; Capt. Thomas English of Company H/9th Infantry would replace Pickett’s company.

Concerns over the supply of, communications with, and reinforcement of military posts from Vancouver Barracks to the Cowlitz River to Ft. Steilacoom and northward to Ft. Bellingham led to plans for construction of a military road between these points. Survey work was completed by soldiers of the 9th Infantry assigned to Ft. Steilacoom and contracts were awarded to various speculators for the construction and maintenance of this new road. While a rough-hewn, east-west freight road had been initiated between Ft. Steilacoom and Walla Walla using the Naches Pass route, this new north-south route would never be completed. Events back east would dry up Federal funds for the project.

Distinguished Persons of Ft. Steilacoom and the Fourth Infantry Regiment

Edward J. Conner

2nd Lt. Conner was posted at Ft. Steilacoom beginning in August 31, 1858, as officer in the 4th Infantry. A native of New Hampshire and a veteran of brief service in Texas with the 5th Infantry Regiment, Conner took an immediate liking to Lt. Col. Casey’s second daughter, Bessie.

According to the diary entries of August Kautz, Conner enjoyed several excursions in the company of Bessie Casey while stationed at the post. In November 1860, Lt. Conner was transferred to Ft. Chehalis; this seems to have ended his pursuit of Ms. Casey.

On the eve of the American Civil War, Conner secured promotion to 1st Lt. in May 1861. He later saw combat service in the Civil War as a captain in the 17th Infantry Regiment.

                                                                   

                               Delancey Floyd-Jones

First Lieutenant Delancey Floyd-Jones was in command of Company C, 4th Infantry while stationed at Ft. Steilacoom between the years 1853–54. Lt. Floyd-Jones graduated from the USMA in 1846—45th in his class—and he saw subsequent service in the U.S.-Mexican War with the 4th Infantry Regiment.

A founding member of the Aztec Club, Lt. Floyd-Jones remained with the 4th Regiment after the war. He served at several posts on the Pacific Coast until the outbreak of the Civil War.

In 1861, Capt. Floyd-Jones was promoted to the rank of Major with the 11th Infantry; he saw significant combat action with the 11th in the Eastern Theater. Commended for his command at the Wheatfield in Gettysburg, Major Floyd-Jones took a Lt. Colonelcy with the 19th Infantry in August 1863. In 1865, Lt. Col. Jones assumed command of the 19th Infantry.

After the war, Floyd-Jones commanded several outposts, forts, and the 6th and 3rd Infantry Regiments. He retired from the Army in 1879.

                                            

                                     Lewis Cass Hunt

Captain Lewis Cass Hunt commanded Company C 4th Infantry at Ft. Steilacoom on paper early as 1856, but not in person until 1858. He was born in 1824 at Ft. Howard near today’s Green Bay, Wisconsin.

Hunt graduated 33rd in a class of 38 from the USMA in 1847. A veteran of the Mexican War and stations on the Pacific Coast, Hunt at one point shared a room with Capt. H. Ulysses Grant at Ft. Humboldt. Captain Hunt commanded Company C through its service on San Juan Island from August 1859–April 1860, its occupation duty at Fort Townsend, and its transfer down the West Coast to its reassignment East at the beginning of the Civil War.

In 1859, Hunt began courting his post commander’s eldest daughter, Abby Casey. This put Hunt in conflict with one of his company officers, Lt. Arthur Schaaf. Schaaf, too, was interested in Abby, but was inclined to over-indulging in alcohol. Abby accepted Lewis’s proposal for marriage and the two were married on November 28, 1860 at the fort. Lt. Schaaf did not attend the wedding.

In 1862, Hunt was wounded leading the 92nd NY Vol. Infantry at Fair Oaks, VA, an engagement in which Hunt served in the third brigade of a division commanded by his father-in-law and a Corps commanded by another Ft. Steilacoom alumnus, E.D. Keyes.

Recovering from his wounds, Hunt convalesced with his growing family at duty stations such as New Bern, NC and New York Harbor. For the latter half of the war, Brig. Gen. Hunt was the commander of the 1st Brigade/4th Div/18th Army Corps. He returned to the 4th Infantry after the war as a major and later assumed the colonelcy of the 14th Infantry in 1881.

Hunt suffered for most of his life from chronic dysentery and intestinal problems, a lifelong illness that was exacerbated by his service in Mexico. He died from this illness shortly after arriving for duty at Fort Union, New Mexico on September 6, 1886. Col./Bvt. Brig. Gen’l Hunt was buried in the National Cemetery at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.

                                              
                                     Henry Moses Judah

Captain Judah served briefly at Ft. Steilacoom in 1860 as commander of Company E/4th Infantry. He graduated from the USMA in 1843, 35th out of 39, and he was assigned initially to the 8th Infantry Regiment.

During the Mexican War, Judah fought with the 4th Infantry and received recognition for his bravery at Molino del Ray and Chapultepec. He served at various posts on the Pacific Coast during the 1850s. At one point, he assumed command of Ft. Simcoe near today’s Yakima during Major Garnett’s 1858 expedition.

At the outbreak of Civil War, Judah accepted a colonelcy with the 4th California Volunteer Infantry. In 1862, Col. Judah was promoted to Brigadier General. A commander in several Western Theater fights, Brig. General Judah commanded the 2nd Division of the 23rd Corps during the Atlanta Campaign.

Issues stemming from his use of alcohol (dating back to the 1850s) and criticism of his command decisions contributed to his assignment to staff duties during the last year of the war. After the Civil War, Judah and his family were assigned to Plattsburg, NY where he died in 1866 at age 45.

 

Maurice Maloney

 

Captain Maurice Maloney, like Lt. Kautz, saw combat service as an enlisted man prior to serving as a commissioned officer. Born in Ireland around 1812, Maloney entered the Army in 1836 seeing service in Florida and the Cherokee Nation.

By the time of the Mexican War in 1846, Maloney had risen to the rank of Sgt. Major. He was promoted from the ranks to 2nd Lt. on Nov. 27, 1846 and he served as the acting adjutant for the regiment for three days in September 1847.

In October 1847, Lt. Maloney was promoted to full-time adjutant for the 4th Infantry Regiment. He earned additional brevet appointments for his heroism in assaults at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. Wounded in battle, Maloney left the war as a 1st Lt./Bvt. Captain (being promoted on May 6, 1848).

Maloney joined the 4th Infantry in its deployment to the Pacific Coast in 1853. On Nov. 22, 1854, Maloney was promoted to Captain and assigned to duty at Ft. Steilacoom. He coordinated the early reaction of Regular troops to the Indian insurgency in the summer and autumn of 1855.

With the arrival of Capt. Keyes and Lt. Col. Casey on the scene later that year, Maloney went back to company command. Maloney remained in command of Co. A/4th Infantry for the remainder of his duty in the Pacific Northwest, seeing service not only at Ft. Steilacoom, but also Camp Montgomery and Ft. Chehalis.

Capt. Maloney joined the 4th in its deployment to the East during the Civil War, but he accepted a promotion to Major in the 1st Inf’y on Sept. 16, 1862. His Regulars trained as both heavy artillery and infantry and were commended for their fighting spirit at places such as Corinth and the siege of Vicksburg. For a time, Major Maloney served as the Colonel of the 13th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry but returned to the Regular Army by the end of the war.

On June 16, 1867, Maloney was promoted to Lt. Col. of the 16th Infantry, a position he held until being replaced by the promotion of Thomas C. English to Lt. Col. two years later. Maloney was unassigned for just over a year before he retired from the service on Dec. 15, 1870. Lt. Col. Maloney died just two years later on Jan. 8, 1872 in Green Bay, Wisconsin.

                                   Thomas J. Montgomery

A Maine native and graduate of the USMA in 1845, Capt. Montgomery saw action in the Mexican War with both the 8th and later, 4th Infantry regiments.

Promoted to 1st Lieutenant on December 26, 1847, Montgomery continued service with the 4th Regiment of Infantry after the war when it was posted to the West Coast. He served at Benecia Barracks and Fort Dalles, and finally Fort Steilacoom in command of Captain of Co. A/4th Infantry (promoted March 27, 1854, filling the position vacated by the death of Charles Larnard).

Unfortunately, his service at Ft. Steilacoom was short-lived. According to the Pioneer and Democrat newspaper dated Saturday, December 2, 1854: “We regret to hear of the death of Capt. Thomas J. Montgomery, of the 4th Infantry, who expired at Fort Steilacoom on the 22d inst.[November], after a very short illness.

Capt. Montgomery graduated at West Point in 1845, and served throughout the Mexican War, being in the battles under General Taylor up to Monterey, and in those under Gen. Scott to the City of Mexico. On all these occasions he was conspicuous for gallantry. As a gentleman of high intelligence and most amiable character, he was equally esteemed by all who knew him.

His funeral took place at Fort Steilacoom on the 24th inst. And was attended with Military and Masonic honors.” And, “DIED, At Fort Steilacoom, W.T., Nov. 22, at 11-1/2 o’clock P.M., Capt. Thos. J. Montgomery, U.S. Army, aged 31 years, 9 months and 17 days.” Capt. Montgomery’s position was filled by the promotion of Captain Maurice Maloney.

 

                                                                                Henry Prince

Born in 1811 in Maine, Henry Prince graduated from the USMA in 1835 and served with the 4th Infantry for most of his military career. He was wounded twice, once during the Seminole Wars in Florida and again, severely, in Mexico at Molino del Ray.

Captain Prince commanded troops of Company C, 4th Infantry at Ft. Steilacoom; he also served on the Coast Survey expeditions of Puget Sound from 1850-55.

He served as an Army Paymaster for the remainder of the 1850s, participating in the Utah/Mormon Expedition, and as a division commander during the Civil War. He was captured at the Battle of Cedar Mountain but resumed his command duties upon parole a few months later.

He left volunteer service in 1866 and continued as a paymaster after the war, returning to the Pacific Coast in 1875. General Prince retired in 1879 as Chief Paymaster.

                                    Robert Nicholson Scott

 

Lt. Robert N. Scott was the husband of Lt. Col. Casey’s second daughter, Miss Bessie Casey, a relationship that blossomed during Lt. Scott’s service at Ft. Steilacoom beginning in August 1860. Serving as a second lieutenant in Company C/4th Infantry under Capt. Lewis Hunt, Lt. Scott would later serve as the Adjutant of the 4th Infantry as the regiment arrived in New York in November 1861 for Civil War service.

Upon arrival in NYC, Scott was notified of his promotion to Captain of Company I, 7th Infantry dated back to Sept. 25, 1861. During McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign in 1862, Scott served as Acting Adjutant-General under Lt. Col. Robert Buchanan of the 1st Brigade in Sykes’s Regular Division (3d, 4th, 1st Batt’n/12th, and 9 companies of the 14th Infantry regiments).

After the war, Captain Scott was promoted to Major in the 3rd Artillery Regiment, seeing service with his new family, including a daughter, Martha, at the Presidio in San Francisco. He served for a time as Assistant Adjutant-General for the Military Division of the Pacific under the command of Maj.-Gen. Henry Halleck.

On December 14, 1877, Major/Bvt. Lt. Col. Scott took charge of the team compiling the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion for both Union and Confederate armies. He died on March 5, 1887 and was promoted posthumously to Lt. Colonel after nearly completing this monumental task. Upon publishing of these records, Scott’s name appeared as the lead editor of the work despite his passing before its completion.

                                              

                                    William & Mary Slaughter

First Lt. William Slaughter served with Company C, 4th Infantry beginning in 1851 and assumed fairly active command of the company in the absence of Captain Prince and Lt. Floyd-Jones until 1855 when he took over the company entirely.

He was born in Kentucky in 1826 and admitted to the USMA in 1844. Slaughter graduated from the Academy in 1848 and was later posted to Fort Gratiot, Michigan as a First Lieutenant in the 4th Infantry.

There, Slaughter became acquainted with Lt. H. Ulysses Grant. Grant took extra care to mention Slaughter’s seasickness in his memoirs as the 4th Infantry sailed to Panama for deployment to the West Coast that same year.

Prior to Slaughter’s deployment, he married Mary Wells of Port Huron. The Slaughters made their home at Ft. Steilacoom beginning in 1853. The young lieutenant purchased real estate in the new town of Steilacoom near the fort and was active in its promotion. He and his wife were popular figures in the new community and liked by all.

Lt. Slaughter led combined volunteer and Regular troops in active campaigning during the Indian insurgency of the Fall of 1855. He was engaged in several sharp firefights that winter. On the evening of December 4, 1855, Lt. Slaughter and two of his men were killed in a nighttime ambush in today’s Kent Valley. Slaughter’s body was brought back to Ft. Steilacoom.

Mary Slaughter never remarried, returning to her parent’s home in Port Huron while being accompanied by Washington Territory Secretary, Charles Mason. Mary died in 1861, shattered by the untimely death of her young husband.

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Captain Ulysses S. Grant arrives at Columbia (later Vancouver) Barracks on September 20, 1852.

On September 20, 1852, Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), then a 30-year-old Brevet Captain, later a famed Civil War general and United States President, arrives with the 4th Infantry regiment at Columbia Barracks, a U.S. Army base on the Columbia River. The base, later called Fort Vancouver and then Vancouver Barracks, is located next to the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Fort Vancouver trading post, within the present-day city of Vancouver, Clark County. Grant spends the next 15 months as regimental quartermaster at the base.

Captain Grant’s 4th Infantry regiment left Benicia, California, where it had been stationed for several months, on September 14, 1852, in the steamer Columbia and arrived at Columbia Barracks on September 20, 1852. The army had established the base in 1849, at the site of the existing Hudson’s Bay Company post, strategically located on the north bank of the Columbia a few miles above the mouth of the Willamette River on the opposite side. Situated on a fertile prairie above the river, with sweeping views of the river, forests, and mountains, the base was an agreeable posting for Grant.

Along with two other officers and some clerks, Grant lived in "Quartermaster’s Ranch," an imposing, two-story home with high ceilings and a porch on three sides, which was prefabricated in New England and shipped around Cape Horn in sections. It was the finest building on the base, and in Grant’s opinion in all of Oregon Territory. Even the base commander lived in a chinked log cabin, while the home of Grant and his fellow officers became the base’s social center. Contrary to legend, Grant did not actually live in the log structure called the "Grant House," which is now a museum at the Fort Vancouver National Historical site, although he spent time there since it was the regimental headquarters.

In addition to his quartermaster’s duties, Grant spent his days playing cards and socializing with fellow officers, and taking long horseback rides along the Columbia, and down the Willamette to Portland and Oregon City. In January 1853, he and his friend Captain Rufus Ingalls were the first of the season to walk across the frozen Columbia River. Grant enjoyed the Northwest, and would have liked to have his family, which consisted then of his wife Julia and two sons, join him. However, the cost of living in the region was too high to maintain a family on his army salary.

Like many soldiers of his day, Grant attempted to go into business for himself on the side. However, in a pattern that would be repeated throughout his life, the business ventures he entered with fellow officers proved to be failures despite his high expectations for them. The officers cut ice on the Columbia and shipped it to San Francisco for sale, but it melted before arrival. They rounded up cattle and pigs to ship to San Francisco, but lost money on the enterprise. They leased land and started a farm, but a river flood wiped out most of the crops. They rented space in a San Francisco hotel to run a billiard club, but the manager they hired absconded with their money.

In early 1854, Grant was transferred from Fort Vancouver and assigned to Fort Humboldt in northern California. Within a few months, he resigned from the army. He did not serve again until the Civil War broke out. During his 15 months in the Northwest, both Grant and the region underwent changes. In March 1853, while Grant was stationed there, Washington Territory was created from the portion of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River. And in the first letter he wrote his wife from the newly created Territory, Grant reported on his growing beard, which he had started when he left California, and which would characterize his appearance for the remainder of his life.

 

Sources:

Fort Vancouver (Washington, D.C.: Division of Publications, National Park Service, 1981), 120; Charles G. Ellington, The Trial of U.S. Grant (Glendale, CA: A. H. Clark Co., 1987), 103-21, 161-63, 225-27. By Kit Oldham, February 20, 2003

Correspondence Relating to the Fourth U.S. Infantry, Operations on the Pacific, 1861

Numbers 3.

Report of Lieutenant Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

CAMP NEAR THE HEAD OF LARRABEE CREEK, May 9, 1861.

CAPTAIN: In compliance with instructions from department headquarters dated March 6, 1861, I have the honor to submit the following report:

Since my report of the 19th ultimo I have attacked two ranches and killed fifteen Indians. The entire country is mountainous, well timbered, watered, and furnishes sufficient grass all the year for large herds of beef-cattle and horses; indeed, it is one of the finest mountain grazing countries I have ever seen. I cannot at this time report correctly upon the number of inhabitants, through they are considerable, at least enough to expect protection, and are located over a country of more than fifty miles. In consequence of the serious depredations of the Indians many of the inhabitants have deserted their homes, and been compelled to drive their cattle to the more thickly settled portions of the country, thogh since some of the Indians have been chastised they are returning and feel more secure in their persons, and property. The best position for a post is, in my opinion, on Eel River, near the head of Larrabee Creek, about sixty-five miles southeast from Fort Humboldt. It should be built immediately, and garrisoned by at least one full company, with a sufficient number of mules and riding saddles to mount a party large enough (say thirty) to follow rapidly and chastise all Indians that may commit depredations within fifty miles of it. This I believe will soon put a stop to all depredations and give ample security to the inhabitants and their property. Without a post but little can be accomplished and proper protection is almost impossible. The roads will be good for pack animslas during the dry season, and the facilities for building good; that is, for small dry houses. The Indians are always informed that they are punished for committing depredations on the citizens and their property, and that they will be followed and severely chastised until they desist and give some reliable pledge of permitting them to remain and follow their avocations umolested. As I have no means of subsisting the women and children found in the different ranchers, of course they are not detained as prisoners, and lose no time in informing other hostile Indians of my acts. This gives many ranchers an opportunity of escaping for the time.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. B. COLLINS,

First Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry, Commanding Detachment.

Captain CHARLES S. LOVELL,

Commanding Forth Humbold, Colonel

* * * * * * *

Report of Lieutenant Joseph B. Collins, Fourth U. S. Infantry.

CAMP AT NEIL'S RANCH,

Van Dusen's Creek, April 15, 1861.

CAPTAIN: Private Casey, of your company, was badly wounded this morning in an engagement with the Indians near Mad River, about twenty miles from here. He was shot with an arrow about two inches below the right shoulder-blade and near the backbone. I pulled the arrow out, but the stone head was so deeply imbedded that it beroke short off, and of course yet remains in him. He was carried from the ranch, where the fight took place, to where he now is, on a litter, compalining of suffering much pain, and is really so bad that I could not move him here. Will you please send medical attendance for him. I had a fight with the Indians yesterday not far from where I again attacked them this morning, and killed between 15 and 20; to-day 5 were killed and 3 wounded. The Indians are very troublesome and almost constantly killing stock. I will report more fully the first opportusnity.

Very respectfully, and in haste, your obedient servant,

JOS. B. COLLINS,

First Lieutenant, Fourth Infty., Commanding Detach. Co. B, Sixth U. S. Infty.

* * * * * * *

CAMP ON LARRABEE'S CREEK, CAL., June 18, 1861.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report, embracing my operations against hostile Indians since May 9, 1861, on Mad and Eel Rivers and their tributaries:

May 23, attaked an Indian rancheria between the head of Larrabee's Creek and Main Eel River, and killed 10 of their number. May 26, attacked rancheria about twelves miles from and farther up the river than the one attacked on the 23rd instant, and killed 4 Indians. May 30, attacked a very large rancheria near Keatuck Creek; killed 25 Indians and wounded 10. At this place the Indians fought with more determination than upon any former occasion. Packer John Steward was shot through the middle finger with an arrow, which fortunately struck the stock of his rifle, preventing a serious if not fatal wound. Twelve bows and quivers with a large number of arrows were taken from this rancheria. June 2, attacked a rancheria about five miles from Larrabee's house; killed 20 Indians. June 8, attacked a rancheria about three miles south of Larrabee's house; killed 4 and wounded 1. June 16, attacked a rancheria near Kettenshaw Valley; killed 4 Indians. Corporal Larrabee, of the volunteers, wounded in the left arm by an arrow. This rancheria was occupied by Las-sic's band, probably the most desperate and troublesome Indians in the mountains. They have frequently been engaged in murdering whites, burning houses, and killing horses and cattle. I regret so few of them were killed, but they were constantly on the alert and could only be caught by following them day and night, the troops carrying their provisions and blankets on their backs. The attack was made near noon, and as the Indians were prepared for it, many of them escaped through the almost impassable bushes. June 17, attacked a rancheria on the trail leading from from Kettenshaw to Round Valley; killed 6 Indians, only 1 escaped. In this rancheria there was found over 200 pounds of pork; hogs recently killed by the Indians. The number of Indians reported killed and wounded in the several engagements were, of course, all males, competent to bear arms. Percussion caps, bullets, and parts of five-arms have been found in their possession. The Indians in the vicinity of every neighborhood between Mad and Eel Rivers, where depredations have been committed for the last four or five months, have been severely chastised, and nearly all of them driven from the settlements. In no instance have Indians been punished who were supposed to be innocent. The volunteers have rendered very efficient service in the manner in which they are associated with the regular troops, and their retention until the expiration of their term of service is important and judicious. No troops could have done better than the detachment from your company, and I take great pleasure in saying that both regulars and volunteers, cheerfully and without a murmur, bore the fatigues, night marches, and deprivations incident to pursuing, finding, and chastising hostile Indians. But little more remains to be done by the present command; probably it will be sufficient after the term of service of the volunteers expires, July 17, to remain where we now are and keep all Indians from the settlements. In my opinion the establishment of a military post is the only mode of affording reliable security to the citizens and their property.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. B. COLLINS,

First Lieutenant, Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

Numbers 1.

Report of Major W. Scott Ketchum, Fourth U. S. Infantry.


HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernanrdino, Cal., October 7, 1861.

SIR: The attention of the general commanding the department is respectfully called to such portions of the inclosed report as embrace the names of Morgan, Grooms, Greenwade, and Cline, secessionists, Cable, a Union man; also that portion relating to jack hays. Morgan, at Temecula, Knight of the Golden Circle, and secessionists, states that eight men were detailed from an organization of 300 men to seize the arms sent to Los Angeles for the Union men, or home guards, but some of the men backed out, consequently the arms were not siezed. Had the arms been seized my camp was to have been attacked. Ferguson, said to be a lieutenant in Kelly's band, gave Morgan this information. This confirms the report made to me by the Union men prior to the election. I understand that a law has been passed to prevent conspiracies and to punish conspirators, but I have received nothing of the kind, or, in fact, anything official from the War Department since General Orders, Numbers 43, of this year, or any general order from Army Headquarters since General Orders, Numbers 11, 1861. I judge from the map inclosed that Cable's, or its vicinity, would be a good station for troops tolook after and capture secessionists, if accompanied by a U. S. marshal and some authority for the capture. There should be a large command of foot and horsemen somehwere between the desert and this place with full powers to act. Supplies could be furnished from New San Diego, which should have a sufficient force to escort the trains, containing supplies, defend the depot, and operate toward Lower California. I have been told that there is a wagon road from Temecula, via San Luis Rey, to San Diego; distance about sixty-five or seventy miles. There is another wagon road from san Diego to Warner's ranch, distance about the same as above, but as it crosses the San Pasqual Mountain, it is difficult to travel in wet weather. The San Pasqual Mountain is very high, and the road on the west side very narrow, very steep, and much washed or full of gullies. From what I can learn, the road between Temecula and San Diego is much better than the other.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

 

ORDERS,
HEADQUARTERS, Numbers 5.
Fort Dalles, Oreg., February 9, 1861.

I. Captain Whitlesey, First Dragoons, with twenty- nine men of his company, mounted andequipped for the field, will cross the Columbia River at Dalles City and proceesd without delay to Big Island and adjacent cutnry, for th purpose of finding and chastising the Indians who have recently stolen horses, mules, and other proprty from the whites on the Umatilla River, wWillow and Butter Creeks. Should any proprty be recovered from the Indians, it will be restored to owners, as far as practicable, or brought to this post. Captain Whittlesey will take with himtwelve days' rations for his command, and not less than sixty rounds of ammunition per man.

II. The quartmasters' deaprtmane will furnish twelve mules, equipped for packing, and employone guide and five packers to accompany Captain Whittleseay.

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding Post.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
San Bernandino, Cal., August 26, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Pacific Department, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Companies D and G reached this place yesterday. Companies A and F encamped at the Old Mission, about twenty-five miles from New San Pedro, on the 24the instantnt, and should reach this place on the 28th instant, if nothing happens to prevent. There are no vacant buildings to be rented for either or sodliers in this town. This command is very much in want of a physician, as well as company officer. Please furnish both as soon as practicable.

Respctfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT, KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernandino, Cal., August 30, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: From information this day received I have thought it advisable to order the two companies of dragoons from Los Angeles to this place. Although authorized to withdraz more, if necessary, I am in hopes that the mounted troops will suffice. I have been informed that the secessionists contemplated attacking my command while in route to this place, but as we were here much sooner than expected the secessionists were not prepared. I have also been notified that in secret meetings it has been determined to attack my camp on or before Wednesday next, but I hope nothing of the kind will happen. If General Sumner has any instructions to give me please send them by telegraph without delay.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETHCUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

FORT TER. WAW, CAL., August 31, 1861.

Major RICHARD C. DRUM,

Asst. Adjt. General, Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal:

MAJOR: In accordance with the direction of the general commanding, I have the honor to report my arrival at this post on the 28th unltimo [instant], and its occupation by Company C, Fourth Infantry. I found upon my arrival at Crescent City that the stock of barley (11,000 pounds) left by Lieutenant Turner in charge of Mr. Snider had been sold and transported to Crescent city; also two wagons. I have re-purchased one of the wagons and contracted for a supply of grain to be delivered here (10,000 pounds). I found nothing worth taking up on my returns of the property left by Lieutenant Turner except two stoves and two pairs of andirouns and a whale-boat, with will serve our purposes for a time. apart from the item of transportation ($25 to $30 per ton from Crescent City), this post is not an expensive tone to keep up. Half the forage allowance will be sufficient, and fine beef-cattle can be purchased on the hoof from responsible parties for 5 cents or less. The Indian population are quiet and well disposed. Mr. Snider found no difficulty, I believe, in preserving and turning over to me in good order the buildings, garden, &c. There are no post records left behind.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant.

L. C. HUNT,

Captain, Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC,
San Francisco, September 2, 1861.

Major WILLIAM S. KETCHUM,

Fourth Infantry, Commanding at San Bernardino, Cal.:

SIR: I am directed by the general commanding the department to inform you that necessity has compelled the withdrawal of two companies of infantry at Los Angeles for service at Fort Yuma. The squadron of dragoons still at that point will, the general hopes, enable you to sustain the authority of the Government and protect the public property.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

RICHD. C. DRUM,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernardino, Cal., September 2, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Captain Davidson's command of dragoons reached this place this day. In my opinion circumstances require that I should detain him at this place until after the election, when, unless disappointed in my expectations, he can carry out such instructions as he may have received from department headquarters. I am much in want of a good physician, company officers, and recruits.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Fort Dalles, Oreg., February 9, 1861.

Captain JOSEPH H. WHITTLESEY,

First Dragoons:

SIR; In additin to the requirements oft the order herewith,* you will co- operate with any troops sent form Fort Walla Walla on the same service, and if necessary communicate with the commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla and these headquarters by means of expresses. You will take every precaution to guard against surprise ort h loss of the proprty in your charge, and endeavor to accomplish the object for which you are dispatched, thoroughly and as speedily as practicable. The accompanying letter from Mr. C. M. Grover will make known to you where the depredations were committed and the prbable location of the Indian depredators. + After completing your search for the hostile Indians on the north side of the Columbia River, it will be well to cross the river anscout in the vicinity of the settlements on Willow and Butter Creeks before returning to this post. I understand that the Indian agent has applied to the commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla to send troops to the Umatilla country. The deparedators are said to be renegades from the Snake, Yakima, Cayuise, Columbia River, and Wallaa Walla Indians, who acknowledge no chief and claim the entire country as their own.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding Post.

* * * * * * *

FORT GASTON, CAL., April 28, 1861.

Major W. W. MACKALL, U. S. Army,

Asst. Adjt. General, Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

MAJOR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with instructions received from your office, dated March 25, 1861, I have this day ordered a detachment, consisting of two non-commissioned officers and twenty-seven privates of Company B, Fourth Infantry, and eight volunteer guides, to proceed from this post to Pardee's old ranch via the South Fork of the Trinity River. From that place the sergeant commanding the detachment has instructions to marvh in any direction (keeping the general's letter of instructions in view) his guides may suggest I have also given him instructions that in case depredations are committed in the section of country through which he marches with his command to take prompt measures to pursue and capture the depredators; and if the fact of their guilt can be clearly ascertained to punish the whole tribe, without the guilty ones are surrendered. The volunteer guides, one corporal and seven privates, did not reach this post until the 26th instant. Many of them were destitute of clothing, and in order to equip them for duty in the field I have been compelled to issue to them a small quantity of clothing. In consideration of the great excitement amongst Indians which has existed consequent upon the surrender of their arms (the fact was fully reported to department headquarters in my letter dated April 20, 1861), I did not consider myself justified in sending a larger force form this post at present, and I have now but thirty-four enlisted men left at this post. Considering the numerical strength of the Indians in this valley, to press any desirable result in case of an outbreak I would require my whole command.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ED. UNDERWOOD,

Captain, Fourth Infantry, Commanding Post.

P. S. - One the same day that the detachment left this post I forwarded a report of the same to Captain Lovell, Sixth Infantry, commanding Fort Humboldt, informing him that they had left. I also furnished the captain a copy of my letter of instructions to the sergeant in command of the detachment.

E. U.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS FOURTH INFANTRY,
Fort Dalles, Oreg., May 29, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,

Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: The present would seem to be not an inappropriate time to invite the attention of the commanding general of the department to the very scattered positions of the Fourth Infantry and to respectfully request him, if not incompatible with the general interests of the service, to make such changes therein as will bring them more immediately under the supervision of the regimental commander. The regiment now occupies almost the entire length and no inconsiderable portion of the breadth of the Department of the Pacific, the companies being garrisoned at ten different posts and the commander with his headquarters at a post without even one of those companies with him. This post is the proper station of Major R. S. Garnett, Ninth Infantry, who is reported on the monthly return as "absent without leave," and who was assigned to it in August, 1859, and is supposed to be on his return to it at this time. Could the companies of the Fourth Infantry now serving in Oregon and at the Cascades be transferred to Puget Sound and those of the Ninth on the Sound be transferred to Oregon, I think it would be beneficial to the interests of the service and would give each regiment a more direct interest in the section in which it would be serving. Should it not be deemed advisable, however, to make this arrangement, it would gratify me to have my headquarters changed to a more central position with regard to the stations of the regiment, or to have one of the detached companies ordered to this post.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. C. BUCHANAN,

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel and Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

FORT DALLES, OREG., May 30, 1861.

ACTG. ASST. ADJT. General, DISTRICT OF OREGON,

Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Special Orders, Numbers 6, of the District of Oregon, and to report that in the present condition of this command I shall feel compelled to detain Captain Black's company until after the arrival of the other from Fort Walla Walla, which will be about the middle of next week, I presume, unless Colonel Wright should forbid my doing so by the Monday's mail. The dragoon company having a detachment of twenty men at Warm Springs is too weak to furnish the necessary guard for the protection of the public property and post and attend also to the care of its horses.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. C. BUCHANAN,

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding Post.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC,
San Francisco, May 30, 1861.

Bvt. Major G. O. HALLER,

Captain, Fourth Infantry, Commanding San Diego, Cal.:

SIR: Orders have been given for sending to you two 24-pounder guns, and the department commander directs that you place them judiciously in battery so as to control as much as possible the harbor at San Diego and at the same time strengthen your position. They will reach you probably on the 3rd proximo.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. C. BUELL,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

* * * * * * *

SPECIAL ORDERS,
HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Numbers 9.
Fort Vencouver, Wash. Ter., June 11, 1861.

I. Fort Cascades will be adandoned forthwith, and the public property of every description turned over to the proper departments at Fort Vancouver. Major Babbitt and Lieutenant Mason will send their agents to the Cascedes by the steamer to-morrow to received the quatermaster's and commissary property from Captain Wallen. Captain Wallen after turning over his pulic property will proceed with the greatest dispatch and embark his company on the steamer Cortez, now at Portland, and comply with his previous orders.

II. Company I, Ninth Infantry, under orders for Fort Walla Walla, will continue its march to Fort Dalles, descending the Columbia River by water. Company E, Ninth Infantry, under orders for Fort Dalles, will continue its march without delay to Fort Vancouver, where its commander will receive further orders.

III. Captain Dent, Ninth Infantry, with his company (B), under orders for Fort Cascades, will continue his march to Fort Hiskins and relieve Captain Agur, Fourth Infantry, in command of that post. Captain Augur will then proceed without delay with his company to Potland and embark on the first steamer for San Francisco, where he will report to the department commander.

IV. Fort Yamhill will be adandoned. Th chiefs of the staff departments at these headquarters will take immediate measures to receive and secure the public property. Captain Russell, Foruth Infantry, with his company (K) will move promptly to Portland, and embark on the first steamer for San Francisco, where he will report to the department commander.

V. Camp Pickett, on San Juan Island, and Fort Townsend will be abandoned and the publict property sent to Fort Steilacoom. Captain Pickett, with Company D, Ninth Infantry, and Captain Hunt, with Company C, Fourth Infantry, will embrak on the firsyt steamer for San Fransicso. Major Ketchum, Foruth Infantry, will proceed with this command, and on his arrival at San Francisco report to the department commander.

VI. Camp Chehalis will be abandoned. The public property that cannot be removed, together with the buildings, will be placed in charge of a responsible agent. The company at Camp Chehalis (A, Fourth Infantry), will then move promptly to the mouth of the Columbia River and embrak on theor San Francisco, where the commander will report to the department commander.

VII. The assistant quartermaster at Fort Steilcaoom will employ the Massachusetts in removing the pulic property from the posts abandoned on the sound, and place the buildings in charge of responsible agents.

VIII. The officers of the medical department at Fort Yamhill, Cascades, and Townsedn, and Camps Pickett and Chehalis, will accompnay their respective commands.

IX. The officers of the quartermaster's department will furnish the necessary transportation to insure a prompt execution of the movements herein ordered.

By order of Colonel Wriht:

JNO S. MASON,
First Lieutenant, Third Artillery, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

 

* * * * * * *

FORT CASCADES, WASH, TER., June 14, 1861.

Major D. C. BUELL,

Asst. Adjt. General, Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I have this day abandoned this post, by instructions received from th headquarters District of Oregon, dated Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., June 11, 1861. The public property was all duty turned over to the proper departments at Fort Vancouver. Inclosed is the post return to date.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. D. WALLEN,

Captain, Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

CAMP SUMNER, July 4, 1861.

Captain R. C. DRUM,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific:

CAPTAIN: There are many rumors in circulation about the movement of troops. If Camp Sumner is to be continued, and it is compatible with the public service, I shall be glad to be retained in command of the camp. This application is only made under the supposition that the major commanding may be sent upon other duty.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. D. WALLEN,

Captain, Fourth Infantry.

* * * * * * *

By command of Brigadier-General Sumner:

RICHD. C. DRUM,
Assistant Adjutant-General.


HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC,

San Francisco, August 14, 1861

Major WILLIAM S. KETCHUM,

Fourth Regiment of Infantry, Camp Samner, Cal.:

MAJOR: It is reported from authentic sources that there is much disaffection toward the Government in the southern part of this State, and the object of placing you with your command at San Bernardino is to repress with a strong hand any organization to resist or impede the measures of the Government. You will consider yourself charged with all the supervision of Los Angeles, San Bernadino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara Counties, and you will endeaveo to keep yourself well informed of all scheming against the Governement, and interpose at once if any overt act of treason is committed. You will have authority to concentrate the troops from Los Angeles, San Bernandino, and San Diego, if any emergency should make it necessary. Communicate with Colonel Andrews, at Fort Yuma, and if that post should be threatened by any histile movement from Texas or Arizona, march instantly to its supporst with your whole available force.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. V. SUMNER,

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernardino, Cal., September 8, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Captain Davidson returned to this place yesterday with his entire command, and leaving Company F, Fourth Infantry, here, proceeded to Los Angeles, without visiting Bear and Holcomb Valleys. As I was not advised by department headquarters of the nature of the instructions under which Captain Davidson acted, I cannot of course say whether he carried them out or not. Captain Davidson left my camp with his dragoons and Company F, Fourth Infantry, on the 5th instant with six days' provisions, and, much to my surprise, returned on the 7th instant, on which latter-mentioned date, I have been informed, some disguised persons fired upon a party en route to the mines in Santa Ana Canon, killing one man named Stemper, and wounding another named Bogan. A man by the name of Green, a clerk for Sylvester, at Holcomb Valley, and another man named John Fuller, an expressman, are reported as missing. I have been told that Stemper had $1,300 or more in gold dust about his person. The horse of the expressman, Mr. Mogo, of Holcomb Valley, says, has been seen, but Fuller and Green have not yet been heard of. Mr. Mogo is also of the opinion that had Captain Davidson proceeded on to Holcomb Valley he would not have been far from the place where the party was attacked. The depredation is represented to have been committed between 9 and 10 a. m. on the 7th instant between Deer Creek and Trip's Station, about five miles this side of Deer Creek and seven miles the other side of Trip's. As Captain Davidson started for Bear and Holcomb Valleys, I regret that he did not visit them, as his party was 125 strong. The mere show of such a force in such places would, in my opinion, have had a beneficial effect.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC,
San Francisco, September 9, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel E. D. TOWNSEND,

Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army,

Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: The Governor of California has given the following appointments to officers of the Army, and as their services will be of the utmost importance in the volunteers, I would respectfully ask the sanction of the General-in-Chief: Major A. J. Smith, First U. S. Cavalry, to be colonel of the Second Regiment of Cavalry; H. M. Judah, Fourth Infantry, to be colonel Second Regiment of Infantry; First Lieutenant Benjamin F. Davis, First U. S. Cavalry, to be lieutenant-colonel (Battalion) First Regiment Cavalry; First Lieutenant John Kellogg, Third Artillery, to be lieutenant-colonel --- Regiment of Infantry; Second Lieutenant E. V. Sumner, Jr., First U. S. Cavalry, to be major Second Regiment of Cavalry.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. V. SUMNER,

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

P. S. -Bvt. Major J. H. Carleton, First Cavalry, was appointed colonel at the request of the Secretary of War.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernardino, Cal., September 10, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: On the 8th instant I informed you what reports had been made to me respecting a party which was attacked while en route to the mines in Holcomb Valley. Mr. Stemper, who was reported killed, was wounded; jumped off his horse and fired four times at his assailants, two in number, who ran off and left him. Mr. Stemper was shot in the thigh through the flesh, and the ball lodged in his wallet in his trousers' pocket, which saved his life undoubtedly. Mr. Bogan was shot in the shoulder. He is now in San Bernardino and will no doubt recover, as his is a flesh wound only. Mr. Fuller, the expressman, is safe. He jumped off his horse and ran. He thinks those who attacked him secure his horse. Of this however, he has no acknowledge. Fuller, who returned to San Bernardino, says he saw nine persons in the attacking party, and he thinks there were more from the noises heard by him. Mr. Green, the clerk, is also safe, and is now in Holcomb Valley. He reports that he fought his way through to Deer Creek Station; hence nobody was killed and only two wounded. Constable Saint John took a posse and went in search of the depredators, so I have been informed, but he has not made any arrests yet, although he suspects who were concerned.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernardino, Cal., September 16, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: Company E, Ninth Infantry, also Company K, Fourth Infantry, and a portion of Company H, Fourth Infantry, joined my command this day from Camp Sumner, Cal., in obedience to instructions from department headquarters. Aggregate, 120. Having received no blanks, I cannot furnish a field return. For the present my command at this place will be kept entire for the purpose of instructions and discipline. My command is sadly in want of company officers.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

 

SPECIAL ORDERS,
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, No. 180.
San Francisco, September 25, 1861.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

2. The counties of San Luis Obispo, Buena Vista, Tulare, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego, in the southern part of the State of California, will constitute a command within this department to be known as the District of Southern California, headquarters at Los Angeles. Colonel George Wright, Ninth Regiment of Infantry, is assigned to the command of the district.

3. The headquarters of the Fourth Regiment of Infantry will be stationed at San Bernardino, to which point Bvt. Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan, major Fourth Infantry, with the regimental staff and band will proceed.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

By order of Brigadier-General Sumner:

RICHD. C. DRUM,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

SPECIAL ORDERS,
HDQRS. DIST. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Numbers 5.
Los Angeles, October 14, 1861.

I. Colonel Carleton will order three companies of volunteer cavalry to march immediately to San Bernardino to relieve the regular troops at that place. As soon as relieved the regular troops under Major Ketchum will march to San Pedro.

II. The headquarters of the Fourth Infantry are transferred to San Pedro. Lieutenant-Colonel Buchanan will proceed immediately with the staff, band, and Company H, Fourth Infantry, to San Pedro, where he will establish a camp and await the arrival of the troops from San Bernardo in numbers. The command at San Pedro will be independent of that of the District of Southern California.

G. WRIGHT,

Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near San Bernardino, Cal., September 10, 1861.

ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, U. S. Army,

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:

SIR: On the 8th instant I informed you what reports had been made to me respecting a party which was attacked while en route to the mines in Holcomb Valley. Mr. Stemper, who was reported killed, was wounded; jumped off his horse and fired four times at his assailants, two in number, who ran off and left him. Mr. Stemper was shot in the thigh through the flesh, and the ball lodged in his wallet in his trousers' pocket, which saved his life undoubtedly. Mr. Bogan was shot in the shoulder. He is now in San Bernardino and will no doubt recover, as his is a flesh wound only. Mr. Fuller, the expressman, is safe. He jumped off his horse and ran. He thinks those who attacked him secure his horse. Of this however, he has no acknowledge. Fuller, who returned to San Bernardino, says he saw nine persons in the attacking party, and he thinks there were more from the noises heard by him. Mr. Green, the clerk, is also safe, and is now in Holcomb Valley. He reports that he fought his way through to Deer Creek Station; hence nobody was killed and only two wounded. Constable Saint John took a posse and went in search of the depredators, so I have been informed, but he has not made any arrests yet, although he suspects who were concerned.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT KETCHUM,

Major Fourth Infantry, Commanding.

* * * * * * * *

SPECIAL ORDERS,
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, No. 180.
San Francisco, September 25, 1861.

2. The counties of San Luis Obispo, Buena Vista, Tulare, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego, in the southern part of the State of California, will constitute a command within this department to be known as the District of Southern California, headquarters at Los Angeles. Colonel George Wright, Ninth Regiment of Infantry, is assigned to the command of the district.

3. The headquarters of the Fourth Regiment of Infantry will be stationed at San Bernardino, to which point Bvt. Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan, major Fourth Infantry, with the regimental staff and band will proceed.

By order of Brigadier-General Sumner:

RICHD. C. DRUM,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[Inclosure No. 2.] SPECIAL ORDERS,
HDQRS. DIST. OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, No. 2.
Los Angeles, October 7, 1861.

I. Colonel James H. Carleton, of the First Regiment California Volunteers, will march as soon as practicable with his entire regiment to Warner's ranch and establish a camp at that place of four companies, under the command of a field officer. Colonel Carleton will then move with the residue of his regiment to Fort Yuma and relieve the garrison of regular troops at that place.

III. Until further orders the headquarters of the Fourth Infantry, with Company H, of that regiment, will be established in this city. The acting quartermaster will furnish quarters for the officers and men.

G. WRIGHT,

Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding.

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Major Gabriel J. Rains, 4th US Infantry Regiment

“The time has arrived when it becomes necessary to determine the question of peace or war between the citzens of the United States and Indian tribes on this frontier, east of the 'Cascades' and west of the Rocky Mountains.” ― Major Gabriel J. Rains, 4th US Infantry Regiment, commanding Fort Dalles Oregon, 29 January 1854

The infamous Indian Island Massacre of the Wiyot people occurred at the end of this period on 25 February 1860. The fort's commander at this time, Major Gabriel J. Rains, reported to his commanding officer that "Captain Wright's Company [of vigilantes] held a meeting at Eel River and resolved to kill every peaceable Indian - man, woman, and child." The vigilantes were also known as the "Humboldt Volunteers, Second Brigade," reported to have organized at Hydesville and the town called "Eel River" in 1860 is now named Rohnerville.

Gabriel James Rains (June 4, 1803 – September 6, 1881) was a career United States Army officer and a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
The 1860 U.S. census provides a snapshot of life on the fort. Among its residents that year were Major Rains, his wife Mary, and their six children (including 2 daughters age 19 and 16.
Rains was promoted to major of regulars on March 9, 1851, and from 1853 until the Civil War he served on the Pacific Coast, where he took part in the Indian Wars. In 1855 he was brevetted to brigadier general of Washington Territory volunteers. Rain was the commanding officer of Fort Humboldt from 1856 through 1860. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of regulars on June 5, 1860, but resigned his commission on July 31, 1861, of his resignation Rains was a lieutenant colonel with the 5th US Infantry. He was made a brigadier general and joined the Confederate States Army, in which he was commissioned a brigadier general by General Sherman.
The infamous Indian Island Massacre of the Wiyot people occurred at the end of this period on February 25, 1860. The fort's commander at this time, Major Gabriel J. Rains, reported to his commanding officer that "Captain Wright's Company [of vigilantes] held a meeting at Eel River and resolved to kill every peaceable Indian - man, woman, and child."
Major Gabriel J. Rains, Commanding Officer of Fort Humboldt at the time, reported to his commanding officer that a local group of vigilantes had resolved to "kill every peaceable Indian - man, woman, and child."
The vigilantes, calling themselves the Humboldt Volunteers, Second Brigade, had been formed in early February 1860 in the inland town of Hydesville, one of the ranching communities in the Nongatl area. They spent most of February "in the field" attacking Indians along the Eel River. A petition had been sent to California Governor John G. Downey asking that the Humboldt Volunteers be mustered into service and given regular pay. Downey declined the petition, stating that the U.S. Army was sending an additional Company of Regulars to Fort Humboldt.
Fort Humboldt it located just North of Eureka, Humboldt County, California.

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