FOURTH U.S. INFANTRY REGIMENT: HOME of HEROES

4th Infantry, 4th Infantry Regiment, Warrior Battalion 1/4, INF 2/4 INF, 3/4 INF,

History

Motto

Noli Me Tangere 

Word Origin & History of Noli Me Tangere
late 14c., "type of facial ulcer, lupus," from L., lit. "touch me not," from noli, imperative of nolle "to be unwilling" + me (see me) + tangere "to touch" (see tangent). Used over the years of various persons or things that must not be touched,
 esp. "picture of Jesus as he appeared to Mary Magdalene" (1670s) and "plant of the genus Impatiens" (1560s, so called because the ripe seed pods burst when touched).
 
ETYMOLOGY:
Late Latin nl m tangere, do not touch me (Jesus' words to Mary Magdalene, John 20:17) : Latin nl, do not, imperative of nlle, to be unwilling + Latin m, me + Latin tangere, to touch

 

 

Coat of Arms

Blazon

Shield: Vert a cross pateé Argent within a circle of fifteen mullets of the like the upper arm of the cross charged with a castle Gules, the lower arm with a fleur-de-lis, the dexter with an arrow and the sinister with a bolo both paleways all of the last. Crest: On a wreath of the colors, Argent and Vert, four plumes Vert.

Symbolism

  1. The green shield recalls the Mexican War.
  2. The National flag bore fifteen stars during the War of 1812.
  3. The white cross represents the service of the Regiment in the Civil War; the arrow, the Indian Wars; the castle, the War with Spain; the bolo, the Philippine Insurrection; and the fleur-de-lis, World War I.
  4. Prior to the approval of the coat of arms, the crest and motto were in use by the Regiment for many years displayed at top of page.

Background

  1. The coat of arms originally approved on 1924-02-26.
  2. It was updated on 1959-05-29.
  3. On 1989-09-14 it was amended to correct the inconsistencies in the blazon and symbolism of the design.

Distinctive Unit Insignia

Description

A gold color rectangular metal and enamel device 1⅛ inches (2.86cm) in height and 1 inch (2.54cm) in width, consisting of a scarlet background on which is centered horizontally a green stripe ⅜ inch (.95cm) in width.

Symbolism

  1. Subsequent to the Mexican War and until the blue uniform was abolished, the Band of the Fourth Infantry was authorized to wear a scarlet piping on the chevrons and trousers stripes in commemoration of the Regiment's distinguished service in the battle of Monterey in turning a captured battery of artillery against the enemy.
  2. The scarlet perpetuates this distinguished service of an element of the Regiment.
  3. Green is the predominating color of the coat of arms of the Regiment; it also symbolizes the service of the Fourth Infantry in the Mexican War.

Background

  1. The metal and enamel distinctive unit insignia was originally approved on 1987-12-21.
  2. It was amended on 1989-09-14 to revise the description and clarify the symbolism.

 

 

 

Flag

Description

  • Size:
  1. Hoist: Three Feet.
  2. Fly: Four Feet.
  • Organizational colors:
  1. Background: National flag blue
  2. Fringe: Yellow.
  3. Letters and Numbers: National Flag Blue
  4. Scrolls: Yellow
  5. Arms:
    1. The flag has a solid background with an embroidered American eagle displayed centered thereon, in Proper Colors.
    2. In its right talon the eagle holds an olive branch; in its left talon, a bundle of 13 arrows, all in proper colors.
    3. Its beak grasps a scroll inscribed with the unit motto.
    4. Below the eagle is a scroll inscribed with the designation of the organization.
    5. On the eagle’s breast is embroidered the shield of the coat of arms and the crest is above the eagle’s head.

 

 Copyright 2003 by P.W. LoganOrigins

It has been alleged that the regiment traces its lineage to the original Fourth United States Infantry, which was organized as the Infantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion on 4 September 1792, only four years after the adoption of the Constitution. The infantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion fought at Miami Rapids in 1794. In 1796, it was re-designated the Fourth Regiment of the Infantry. The regiment existed for ten years, as a youthful country experimented to obtain a military force to its needs. Due to a reduction in the army, the regiment was disbanded in 1802. However, according the United States Army Center of Military History, this Fourth Infantry was a temporary unit with no lineal connection to either the original permanent 4th Infantry Regiment, or the modern 4th Infantry Regiment. See the lineage of the first 4th US Infantry below.

Northwest Territory Indian Wars

In 1808 Regular Army was reorganized to meet the growing threat posed by the Indian nations living on the western boundaries of the United States. The first permanent Regular Army unit to bear the designation of 4th Infantry Regiment was constituted on 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army, and organized during May–June 1808 in New England.

Under the leadership of General William H. Harrison, the 4th Infantry, commanded by Colonel John Parker Boyd, was sent into the Northwest Territories, which included Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Its mission was to eliminate the threat posed by a union of Indian tribes from the surrounding area. The hostile actions of these tribes were effectively stopping settlement of this vast area. General Harrison, who was later to become a United States President, led the 4th Infantry and a force of militia and volunteers against the Indians at Tippecanoe. During this battle, the American forces completely routed the Indians, bringing peace to the area, but at a cost of 188 dead. The regiment then returned to Fort Vincennes, and in 1812, after a trying march through the forests of Ohio, joined forces with General William Hull.

War of 1812

Within months of the Battle of Tippecanoe, the United States declared war against Great Britain. This required the increased manning of the Regular Army.

The modern 4th Infantry Regiment was constituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the original 14th Infantry Regiment, and organized in March 1812 in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

On 12 July, General Hull crossed with his command into Canada, and made camp at Sandwich (now Windsor), Canada, just on the Canadian border. The regiment remained inactive for the rest of the month and grew restless. Then the Fourth was given a mission of escorting some supplies into Camp Detroit, previous escorts having been surprised and routed. The Fourth Infantry undertook this duty enthusiastically, and although ambushed at Maguage, fourteen miles below Detroit, by a superior force of British, Canadians, and Indians, the American regulars captured the enemy's concealed breastworks, wounded Chief Tecumseh, and completely routed their opponents.

 

Before they could follow up on their success and complete the victory, the Fourth received orders from General Hull to return to Detroit. There, the Fourth found out that General Hull had surrendered his entire force to include the Fourth led by Captain Cook to Lieutenant Bullock of the 41st Regiment on 16 August 1812 at Fort Detroit, Michigan. For this General Hull was tried and found guilty of "Cowardliness" and "Neglect of Duty". President Monroe, mitigating the court-martial sentence that General Hull be shot, ruled: "The rolls of the army shall no longer be debased by having upon them the name of Brigadier General Hull". The Fourth Infantry's colors taken by the British (through no fault of the regiment) were kept in the Tower of London until 1889, then the colors for many years hung in the Chapel of the Royal Hospital Chelsea until 1961. Along the walls of the Great Hall are replicas (the original are in the museum). They are currently in the Welch Regiment Museum.

 After remaining several months in Canada as prisoners of war, the officers and men were returned under parole to Boston and given furloughs until exchanged for British prisoners of war. Early in 1813 the exchange was effective and the regiment reassembled and recruited to strength. It fought at the second Battle of Lacolle Mills, Canada and at Plattsburgh in 1814.

Following the end of the War of 1812, and consistent with the reduction in force of the Regular Army, the original 4th Infantry Regiment was consolidated on May–October 1815 with the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form the 5th Infantry Regiment. Thereafter separate lineage.

In the same time period the 14th Infantry Regiment was consolidated May–October 1815 with the 18th Infantry Regiment and 20th Infantry Regiment (both constituted 11 January 1812) and the 36th Infantry Regiment and 38th Infantry Regiment (both constituted 29 January 1813) to form the modern 4th Infantry Regiment. On 21 August 1816 unspecified 4th Infantry Regiment companies were re-designated as Companies A and B, 4th Infantry Regiment. These companies would later be instrumental in the reorganization of 4th Infantry Regiment from the original organizational model, which included a headquarters element and 13 lettered companies with no battalion organization, to one with the 13 lettered companies divided between two battalions. The original Companies A and B would become Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st and Headquarters and Headquarters Company 2nd Battalion.

Creek and Seminole Campaigns

For the next twenty years, the regiment fought almost constantly with the Creek Indians in Georgia, and the Seminoles in Florida under the command of General Andrew Jackson, a future president. In constant and long hardships the regiment marched through swamps, building cantonments and raking roads to open what now is the state of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. A letter of Gen. Lorenzo Thomas stated: “Each company built its own double block of logs and a house of one story for the officers quarters. The troops also saved the boards for flooring, and rived the pine shingles for roofs. In truth, the troops did the entire work, the quartermaster department only furnishing the few tools to work with, such as nails and other hardware. Scarcely a nail was used to secure the shingles, they being hung on the rafters with wooden pegs. The spaces between the logs were chinked with moss and clay and afterward the whole was whitewashed. All completed with scarcely any expense to the government."

In December 1835, Osceola's Seminoles cut the line of communication and supply to one of the border stations, Fort King. One hundred artillerymen from Fort Brooke under Major Gardner were ordered to re-establish the contact. At the last moment, Major Gardner's bride of a few weeks fell ill. Captain and Brevet-Major Francis L. Dade of the Fourth Infantry took command for Major Gardner. Dade joined the expedition with eleven men of B Company, Fourth Infantry. The march was begun on 20 December; on 28 December, forty miles short of Fort King, Major Dade's column was ambushed by Osceola. The only survivors of the attack were three badly wounded privates who reported the command had fought stubbornly from eight in the morning until five at night when, their ammunition exhausted, they were killed. Those who died or were wounded were: Francis L. Dade, Brevet Maj., Pvt. John Barnes, Pvt. Donald Campbell, Pvt. Marvin Cunningham, Pvt. John Doughty, Pvt. Cornel Donovan, Pvt. William Downes, Pvt. Enoch Yates, Pvt. Samuel Hall, Pvt. Wiley Jones, Pvt. John Massacre, suffering some casualties: Pvt. David Hill was killed at Fort Call on 21 August 1836, Pvt. David Mclaughlin and Pvt. William Walker were killed at Thonotosassa on 26 August 1836, Sgt. Levi Clendening was killed at Chrystal River on 9 February 1837, Pvt. Othiel Lutz, Pvt. John Stewart, and Pvt. Bathol Shumard were killed at Okeechobee on 25 December 1837, and Pvt. William Foster was killed at Big Cypress on 20 December 1841.

By 1842, the Fourth Infantry had caught up with the Indians and sent Osceola to a cell at Moutrie in which he would remain until his death. Hostile tribes that lived in these areas fled west of the Mississippi. The death roll of one company for one year includes casualties from the Indians, cholera, and five diagnosed types of fever. The same death roll has the entry "Intemperance" after two more soldier's names. In Orders No. 15, Western Army, 28 August 1832, General Winfield Scott states: "The senior surgeon recommends the use of flannel shirts, flannel drawers and woolen stockings, but the Commanding General, who has seen much of the disease [cholera] knows that it is intemperance which generates and spreads the calamity and that, when spread, good and temperate men are likely to be infected. He therefore peremptorily commands that every soldier or ranger who shall be found drunk or sensibly intoxicated, after publication of this order, be compelled, as soon as his strength will permit, to dig a grave at a suitable burying place large enough for his own reception, as such a grave cannot fail soon to be wanted for the drunken man himself or for one of his drunken companions. This order is given as well to serve as a punishment for drunkenness as to spare good and temperate men the labor of digging graves for their worthless companions."

 

Historic Sites of the Creek War

On July 27, 1813, the Mississippi Territorial Militia intervened in a civil war that had been raging within the Creek Nation in Alabama and Georgia. The militia's attack on a Creek supply train at Burnt Corn Creek in Alabama brought the United States into a bloody conflict that would be remembered as the Creek War of 1813-1814.

The civil war among the Creeks had started as a result of a religious explosion among certain factions of the nation during the winter of 1812-1813. Led by the Prophet Josiah Francis, thousands of Creek warriors became followers of the teachings of the Shawnee Prophet  Tenskwatawa.

The movement's main goal was the return of Native American peoples to their traditional lifestyles and the disavowal of anything associated with the whites. These beliefs quickly put Francis' followers, called Red Sticks because of the red war clubs they displayed in their villages, at odds with the Big Warrior and other traditional leaders of the Creek Nation. The latter individuals favored the "civilization" program promoted by U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins.

The Red Sticks retaliated for the attack at Burnt Corn Creek by launching an attack of their own against Fort Mims, a frontier stockade in South Alabama. Hundreds of men, women and children died in the fall of Fort Mims and outraged citizens across the South blamed the Creeks for starting a war against the whites.

Three American armies took the field against the Red Sticks and severe fighting followed. The climactic Battle of Horseshoe Bend took place on the Tallapoosa River on March 27, 1814. Led by the war chief Menawa, the main fighting force of the Red Sticks was beaten by the much larger army of Andrew Jackson. More than 800 warriors died in the fighting
and the military power of the Creek Nation was forever broken.

The prophet and several thousand of his surviving followers fled to Spanish Florida where they soon allied with the British who were then engaged in the War of 1812 against the Americans. The rest of the nation was forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which required them to surrender hundreds of thousands of acres of land to the United States as reparations for the cost of the war. The area included large parts of the modern states of Alabama and Georgia.

Mexican-American War

In 1842, the regiment was ordered to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, where after half a century of existence the regiment enjoyed for the first time the comforts of a regular post. The regiment trained at Jefferson barracks for two years when in 1844, it was ordered to the western border of Louisiana for the war with Mexico. Hostilities were precipitated by the murder of Colonel Cross and the killing of a lieutenant with a small detachment of 4th Infantry soldiers by Mexican raiders. Although this happened in April, communications were slow and it was not until September that the command sailed to Corpus Christi, Texas, where with the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 8th Infantry regiments, one artillery regiment acting as infantry, seven companies of dragoons, and four companies of light artillery formed the Army of Observation under General Zachary Taylor. The pay was seven dollars a month and flogging was the usual means of punishment. U.S. Grant, then a lieutenant in the 4th Infantry, stated in his personal memoir: "A more efficient army for its number and armament, I do not believe ever fought a battle than the one commanded by General Taylor in his first two engagements on Mexican--or Texan soil".

The Army of Observation soon became the Army of Occupation. On the fields of Palo Alto, Resaca De La Palra, and at Monterey, where the regimental band of the Fourth threw away their instruments, seized a Mexican light battery, and swung it about upon their fleeing enemy. According to the official citation, the breast cord of honor given them and their successors was red, the artillery's color, to show that they were expert artillerymen as infantrymen. General Taylor had in his command leaders such as Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant and Captain Robert E. Lee serving as a company commander of engineers. These battles had a great influence in molding the leaders of the American Civil War, which followed.

General Taylor having successfully invaded Northern Mexico moved the base of active operations to Vera Cruz on the east coast. In January 1847, the 4th Infantry was taken by sea to the port of Vera Cruz and after a siege, the city capitulated. General Scott commanding the Army at Vera Cruz ordered the advance on the capital, Mexico City, in April. On 17 April and 18th General Scott's forces moved through the mountain pass at Gerro Gordo, where General Santa Anna lost his wooden leg in a hasty retreat. The Mexican soldiers fought well and the pass was won only after desperate attacks.

Garrison duty

At the finish of the war the 4th Infantry left from Vera Cruz, and reached Camp Jeff Davis, Pascagoula, Mississippi on 23 July 1848. The regiment was ordered to proceed by sea to New York and to take station at several different points on the lakes, between Mackinac and Plattsburgh. Ordinary garrison duties were performed until June 1852.

The regiment was consolidated at Fort Columbus, New York to board the SS Ohio and travel to Aspinwall, on the Isthmus of Panama on 5 July 1852. Their mission was to travel across the Isthmus of Panama and set up camp on the Pacific coast to protect early settlers of the Pacific Northwest. After a long journey on the overcrowded ship (1,100 officers, men and camp followers) the regiment safely reached Aspinwall on 16 July 1852. The rainy season was at its height on the Isthmus and cholera was raging. Transportation was lacking for the trip across the Isthmus of Panama, the jungles, mountains, and rivers were difficult to cross; and cholera decimated the organization as well as the families who accompanied the men. The total deaths from cholera, fever, and allied diseases from the time the regiment arrived on the Isthmus to a few weeks after the arrival at Benica on the west coast, amounted to one officer and 106 enlisted men.

On arrival on the Pacific coast, the regiment was distributed among many small posts. Vancouver Barracks, Fort Townsend, Fort Hoskins, Fort Humboldt, Fort Dalles, Fort Steilacoom, Fort Jones, Fort Boise, Fort Lane, Fort Reading, Fort Yamhill, Orford, Fort Walla Walla, Crook, Fort Ter-Waw, Fort Cascades, Fort Simcoe, Fort Gaston, Chehalis, Fort Yuma, and Fort Mohave were all garrisoned and many of them built by the 4th Infantry at some time between 1852 and 1861.

Major Granville O. Haller of the 4th Infantry led an expedition from Fort Dalles into central Washington, and Lieutenant William A. Slaughter also of the 4th Infantry with forty-eight men from Fort Steilacoom crossed Natchez Pass to aid Major Haller when attempts to move the Indians of Puget Sound onto reservations caused trouble between them and some white settlers. Captain Maloney of the 4th Infantry, and Captain Gilmore Hayon of the Washington Volunteers had started for Yakima via Natchez Pass when they were overtaken on 29 October 1855 by the Nisqually tribe under Chief Leschi. Lt. Slaughter and his men plus Captain Hayes' force met the Indians at the crossing of the White River, and on 4 November 1855 fought without decisive results. The following day the troops met hostiles in the difficult country between the White and Green Rivers. The troops fell back into the valleys and on 24 November 1855, Lt. Slaughter, commanding a platoon of the 4th Infantry and a company of volunteers, was attacked in his camp at Puyallup. The lieutenant moved to the present site of Auburn and here again the Indians attacked. Slaughter and two corporals of the volunteer company were killed, four other men were injured, one later dying of his wounds. For years the town, which sprang up on this site, was known as Slaughter in honor of this officer of the 4th Infantry; it was later changed to Auburn.

During the hostilities many settlers had taken refuge at Fort Steilacoom, the woman and children being left there, while the men enrolled in the volunteers. Ezar Meeker, one of the settlers, paid the following tribute to First Lieutenant John Nugen of the Fourth Infantry, commanding Fort Steilacoom while Captain Maloney was in the field.

"It would be a pleasure, could I but know he was alive, to even yet thank that kind and considerate gentleman, Lt. Nugen, for his forbearance and energetic efforts to contribute to the safety and comfort of the panic-stricken citizens. By improvising temporary quarters for his force most of whom, however, were placed on guard duty, room was provided in the soldier's barracks for the woman and children, while the men were placed on guard with what few soldiers were left."

Hostile tribes attacked Seattle on 26 January 1856, and two settlers were killed. Meanwhile the regular forces were augmented by additional companies of the 4th Infantry from Vancouver Barracks and by three companies of the 9th Infantry. On 12 February 1856, they moved from Fort Steilacoom and were joined by Chief Patkanim with friendly Indians. This force advanced against the hostiles at Mucleshoot, losing one man and nine wounded, in a second battle on the White River overrunning the Indian encampment. Leshi retreated through Natches Pass and surrendered to Colonel. Wright, the commanding officer of the 4th Infantry, who had been conducting a vigorous campaign against the Yakima Indians and their allies, while the action in the west was occurring. By the close of the Leschi War, the 4th Infantry included in its present and past roster of officers such as Robert C. Buchanan, Christopher C. Augur, Alden, William Wallace Smith Bliss, Ulysses S. Grant, Philip Sheridan, Henry M. Judah, DeLancey Floyd-Jones, R.N. Scott, Lewis Cass Hunt, Granville O. Haller, Henry C. Hodges, Waller, David Allen Russell, Henry Prince, Benjamin Alvord, August Kautz, Robert Macfeely and George Crook. Many of these officers would later serve in the American Civil War.

In 1859, General William S. Harney ordered the occupation of San Juan Island as part of the territory of the United States. Three companies of the Fourth Infantry and one of the Ninth, under the command of Captain George Pickett, did the occupying. The British commander had under his command five men-of-war with 167 guns, and 2,000 sailors and marines. The British invited an officer of the Fourth to an official party of courtesy aboard the flagship. The American made a remark concerning a battle in the ongoing Second Italian War of Independence.

"I presume," he asked, "that you refer to the battle of Magenta, Major?"

"No, sir. I spoke of the second engagement of the campaign, some weeks after Magenta."

"Hm-m, and how have such late advices reached you?"

"By courier from our Department of State, sir."

It was September 1859; Magenta had been fought 4 June. The British, thus believed the Americans had more current information. With the memory of Pakenham's losses at New Orleans (in a battle fought after the war was ended) fresh in their minds, the British decided to wait. As it happened, the English commander was really the best informed man on the scene, as was proved by the subsequent arrival of General Winfield Scott with orders which vetoed General Harney's decision. The San Juan troops were quietly withdrawn, without bloodshed.

This incident in Puget Sound is called the Pig War.

Civil War

In 1861 with the secession of a number of Southern states to form the new Confederate States of America, the regiment moved from its dispersed posts in the Department of the Pacific to Southern California to suppress any secessionist uprising. Charged with the supervision of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara Counties, on 14 August 1861, Major William Scott Ketchum made a rapid march on 26 August and encamped near San Bernardino, California with Companies D and G, later reinforced at the beginning of September by a detachment of ninety First U.S. Dragoons and a howitzer. Except for frequent sniping at his camp, this move stifled a secessionist uprising and prevented secessionist political demonstrations during the September California gubernatorial elections in San Bernardino County.

In late October 1861 the regiment was relieved by California Volunteer units and marched to San Pedro harbor where they waited for the balance of the regiment to gather before being transported to Washington D.C. to become part of the garrison in defense of the capital. The regiment was organized with other Regular Army units in the Volunteer Army as the First Brigade of George Sykes's "Regular Division" of the V Corps. The regiment's first Civil War engagement was in April and May 1862 during the Siege of Yorktown. By quick action at the Battle of Gaines Mill in June 1862, the Regulars saved Wood's and Tidball's artillery batteries from capture by Confederate infantry.

It participated as a part of the Army of the Potomac in the Second Battle of Bull Run and then the subsequent Maryland Campaign. At the Battle of Antietam, the regulars held the Middle Bridge over Antietam Creek, guarding the vital passage. They advanced towards the Confederate-held town of Sharpsburg, Maryland, late in the afternoon of 17 September 1862, before being recalled to their lines.

After seeing limited action at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, the regiment went into winter camp and saw no further combat for months. It formed part of Joseph Hooker's rear guard at Chancellorsville. Throughout the Gettysburg Campaign, the regiment served in the Regular Division under its newly promoted commander, Romeyn B. Ayres. During the Battle of Gettysburg, it was part of the fighting on the Second Day, helping push back Confederate infantry near Devil's Den and the Wheatfield.

Heavily depleted by battle casualties, the much-reduced regiment nevertheless continued to participate in the major campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, by 1864 under the command of Ulysses S. Grant during the Overland Campaign. The remaining men participated in the battles of Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, and the Siege of Petersburg. By the time the regiment manned the breastworks around Petersburg, a lieutenant, George Randall, was in command as the senior officer still present for duty.

On 22 June 1864, with less than 150 men left, the 4th Infantry reported to City Point, Virginia, to become Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s headquarters guard. The greatly reduced regiment was present at Appomattox Courthouse for Robert E. Lee's surrender. Grant, then commanding the armies of the Union, never forgot the 4th Infantry, with which he had served as a lieutenant in Mexico and on the frontier. As recognition of its valor during the Civil War, he designated it as the guard unit during the formal surrender ceremony.

Survivors of the 4th U.S. Infantry marched in the grand review of troops in Washington D.C. in May 1865, immediately following the war.

Post Civil War

After Appomattox, the regiment returned to the West, now to Fort Laramie. On 31 March 1869 the regiment was consolidated with the original 30th Infantry, and the resulting consolidation retained the 4th Infantry designation. It is of special note that Companies A and B of each organization was carefully blended together to retain their original status. One casualty is noted as Pvt. Jonathan Schewen who died from an Indian attack on 9 December 1869 at Horse Rive, Wyoming. where the 4th fought with General Crook's Big Horn Expedition.

In 1871, parts of the Fourth went to Louisville to be split into small detachments to chivvy moonshiners about the Kentucky hills for a year, while other parts stayed to fight Indians. Sgt. Patrick Sullivan of the 4th was ambushed and murdered by outlaws on 4 March 1876 at Fort Fetterman, Wyoming and Maj. Thomas T. Thornburgh was killed in an Indian attack on 29 September 1879 at Milk River, Colorado-during the Meeker Massacre {Thornburgh and 12 others killed and 43 wounded. See [1]}.

The 4th served under Crook in the Battle of the Rosebud, where Crook ordered the infantry to advance to the bluffs on foot in support of his Indian allies. The men of Co. D, 4th Infantry, led by Capt. Avery B. Cain, were the first to reach the crest of the ridge north of the Rosebud, where they opened fire. Companies C, G and H, 9th Infantry, and Co. F, 4th Infantry, supported the charge. The success of the infantry was critical to the outcome of the battle. Their enhanced firepower kept the Indians at bay, while cavalrymen made their horses ready. In moving forward, the foot soldiers found a Crow warrior leaning against a tree, where he urged on his companions, yelling like a madman. This was Bull Snake, whose thighbone had been shattered when he exposed himself on a bravery run. Also wounded here was Fox-Just-Coming-Over-Hill, renamed Old Coyote, shot through the shoulder.

In 1892–93, under Colonel Robert Hall, the Fourth escorted Coxey's Army through Washington and Idaho guarding the Northern Pacific Railway from disorder arising from the march of Coxey's Army.

Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War years

In 1898, the Fourth went east and embarked from Tampa to Cuba on the steamer "Concho". Landing at Daiquiri, the regiment participated in the battle of El Caney and the occupation of Santiago. Fever decimated the command and the campaign ended.

The Fourth returned to New York in August 1898. Quickly recruited at Fort Sheridan, the regiment sailed in January 1899 for Manila via the Suez Canal.

The Fourth Infantry, or units of it, participated in fights of La Loma church, Wariquima, Dismarinias, Imus, Puento Julien, and elsewhere in the Philippines, finally capturing Lt. General Trias, second in command to Aquinaldo. On 20 November 1899, Private John C. Wetherby, Co. L, 4th Infantry, was near Imus, Luzon, Philippine Islands when he was wounded carrying important orders on the battlefield, unable to walk, he crawled a great distance in order to deliver his orders. Private Wetherby received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

On 2 July 1901, 2Lt Allen J. Greer of the 4th Infantry was near Majada, Laguna Province, Philippine Islands when he charged alone an insurgent outpost with his pistol, killing one, wounding two, and capturing three insurgents with their rifles and equipment. For his actions, 2Lt. Greer received the Medal of Honor.

On 23 November 1901, 1LT. Louis J. Van Schaick, was pursuing a band of insurgents, near Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippine Islands, and was the first to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and attack his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment. 1Lt. Van Schaick received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

In 1902, the regiment returned to San Francisco, having circled the globe.

The regiment returned to the Philippines for another tour from 1903 until 1906.

In October 1906 the regiment moved to Wyoming in time to stop the Ute uprising, its last campaign against hostile Indians.

In 1908, the regiment was ordered to the Philippines for a third time, remaining until 1910.

Trouble with Mexico caused the regiment to be stationed on the Texas border in 1913; and in 1914 it took part in the occupation of Veracruz. Pvt. Herman C. Moore, 4th Infantry Regiment was killed during this conflict in October 1915. The regiment camped on the same grounds as it had in the U.S.-Mexican War of 1847, sixty-seven years before.

World War I

In 1917, the United States entered World War I. On 1 October 1917, the Fourth was assigned to 3d Division. Stationed at Fort Brown, Texas, the regiment recruited and trained up to strength and on the first anniversary of the American entry into the war, left for France. The Fourth Infantry disembarked at Brest, France in 1918 and participated in the defensive actions of Aisne, Château-Thierry, Second Battle of the Marne, and in the Third Battle of the Aisne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne offensives. The entire regiment was decorated with the French Croix de Guerre, having lost eighty percent of its men, under constant and grueling fire during thirty days on the line; the regiment was relieved by the 60th Infantry.

On 7 October 1918 near Cunel, France, PFC John L. Barkley, Co. K, 4th Infantry was stationed in an observation post half a kilometer from the German line, on his own initiative repaired a captured enemy machinegun and mounted it in a disabled French tank near his post. Shortly afterward, when the enemy launched a counterattack against American forces, PFC Barkley got into the tank, waited under the hostile barrage until the enemy line was abreast of him and then opened fire, completely breaking up the counterattack and killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. Five minutes later an enemy 77-millimeter gun opened fire on the tank pointblank. One shell struck the drive wheel of the tank, but this soldier nevertheless remained in the tank and after the barrage ceased broke up a second enemy counterattack, thereby enabling American forces to gain and hold Hill 25. PFC Barkley received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

After a rest which the organization received six hundred replacements, it was marched to a position in the Forest De Passe, and on 9 November 1918, received orders to be ready on a moments notice. The men knew they were to take part in the final drive to encircle Metz in the event the Germans did not accept terms of the proposed armistice. Preparations were being made for the departure on the morning of 11 November, when the end of the war was heralded by the French villagers. The Fourth Infantry served as part of the Army of Occupation in France, until 1919.

After returning to the United States, the Fourth Infantry was stationed at Camp Pike, Arkansas, and then moved to Camp Lewis, Washington, the site of which was part of the tribal grounds of Chief Leschi, the regiment’s enemy in 1855–56. In June 1922, the regimental headquarters, headquarters and service companies and second battalion of the regiment were sent to Fort George Wright, Washington, while the other two battalions occupied Fort Missoula, Montana and Fort Lawton, Washington. On 19 February 1925 the unit was permitted to wear the red-green-red distinctive unit insignia.

Alaska defense

In 1927, the Third Battalion at Fort Lawton moved to Fort Lincoln, Maryland. After maneuvers in California in 1940, the 3rd battalion was redesigned as part of the 15th Infantry. Cadre made up a new 3rd Battalion from the remainder of the regiment and the transfer of two companies of the 32nd Infantry at Chilkoot barracks, Alaska. The 1st battalion, 4th Infantry pioneered military development of the strategic Alaskan territory. The rest of the regiment arrived shortly after and started clearing ground for what is now Fort Richardson. It was the first organization of such size to arrive in Alaska.

The Fourth formed the nucleus for the Alaska Defense Command, to deter a Japanese invasion of Alaska. The Japanese began to build-up forces on the southern-most Alaskan Islands and the Fourth's major battle of the war was the battle of Attu, a Japanese held island. On 8 May 1943 soldiers of the Fourth climbed over the sides of their transport ships to land on Massacre Bay. Major John D. O'Reilly of Seattle, battalion commander, who was later to receive a battlefield promotion to lieutenant colonel, reported to Major General Landrem. Carrying extra rations and ammunition, the troops marched to engage the enemy less than 24 hours after landing. On Attu Island, the First Battalion fought the Japanese at altitudes of 2000 feet on snow-covered mountains. Moving north along the high west ridge of Chichagof Valley on 21 May 1943 the battalion came up against strong enemy opposition from machine gun and sniper positions. Later that day, the battalion moved along the ridge to a point where visual contact was established with other American forces that had proceeded inland from the Holtz Bay area, on the opposite side of the island.

After five straight days of strong enemy opposition, the First Battalion was pulled to the rear for rest and to prepare for their next mission. After a day's rest, the First Battalion was given the task of clearing entrenched Japanese defenders from the high peaks of Fish Hook Ridge. Covered only by mortar and machine gun fire, troops of Company A scaled steep cliffs while facing heavy enemy fire. Small groups of soldiers were clearly visible as they slowly inched their way up to the enemy held peaks. One observer later said that the scene resembled a Hollywood adventure movie rather than reality.[citation needed] Many were wounded or killed, but the battalion on 27 May 1943 finally took a portion of a high rock on the northeast end of the ridge, giving them a commanding position overlooking the main ridge running east toward the Chichagof Valley.

The fighting continued into the night and by 1900 hours on the next day, the 4th Infantry had accomplished its mission. The Presidential Unit Citation was awarded to the 1st Battalion for its heroism during the attack on the peaks.[11] The next day, the American invasion force engaged and defeated 1,000 Japanese in a suicide counter-attack near Sarana Valley. The Fourth was given the task of combing the area of Chichagof Valley by active patrolling, hunting out and capturing or killing Japanese stragglers. This was the last engagement with the Japanese for the regiment. The Japanese had been driven from Alaska's Aleutian Islands. In the fighting the regiment lost approximately five officers and sixty enlisted men.

2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in one of the first big troop movements by air, probably the largest up to that time.[citation needed] Early on the morning of 19 June 1942 the battalion was ordered to move to Nome, Alaska near the edge of the Arctic Circle, where unidentified planes were flying threatening an invasion. Only a small number of army transport planes were available. The situation was critical and orders required that the vanguard of the force, 20 anti-aircraft guns and their crews, be in Nome within 24 hours. All civilian air traffic in Alaska was stopped that day and every suitable airplane in the vicinity was requisitioned for the movement. The fleet of planes included Stinsons, Bellancas, and two old Ford Tri-motors. By midnight of the same day, after 39 individual trips, the anti-aircraft units had been moved to Nome and the big shuttle movement was under way. Despite weather that kept the planes on the ground part of the time, the entire force and all its equipment, with the exception of big field guns and similar heavy equipment, was transported to Nome in a period of 18 days. The movement would have been completed in a week had it not been for the unfavorable weather conditions. Cargo-carrying commercial planes coming in from China were used to supplement the air armada. The midnight sun, providing almost full 24 hours of daylight, made it possible for some of the planes to make two trips in a single day. Ammunition, rations, tents, even 37 millimeter guns and field kitchens, everything necessary to make the force self-sufficient were moved by air without one accident. Heavy weapons were brought up later by boat. The troops stepped out of the planes in Nome, equipped and ready to fight. The total flights came to 218. The troops maneuvered in weather from 20 to 35 degrees below zero. They found that none of the elaborate footgear provided by the army protected their feet as well as the native Mukluk, made by the Eskimos from deer and the hide of sealskins. The 2nd Battalion remained in Nome for a year, later moving to the Aleutians. First to Dutch Harbor then to Adak, where they experienced other types of bad weather.

The 3rd Battalion, which included two companies that were stationed at Chikoot Barracks for many years before the war, helped to establish two big bases, Fort Richardson and Ladd Field.

On 2 December 1943, the 4th returned to the United States, and after consolidating the regiment at Fort Lewis, Washington, it moved on 23 January 1944 to Fort Benning, Georgia, where it was assigned to the United States Army Replacement and School Command. On 1 November 1945, the 4th Infantry was assigned to the 25th Infantry Division. The incumbent personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division, which was at Camp Butner, North Carolina, while the regimental records and accoutrements were forwarded to Japan to establish a unit for occupation duty. This iteration of the 4th Infantry Regiment was inactivated on 31 January 1947, at Osaka, Japan. The records and accoutrements were returned to the United States and the 4th Infantry Regiment was relieved from assignment to the 25th Division on 1 February 1947.

NATO mission

The 4th was again activated on 1 October 1948 at Fort Lewis, Washington as the 4th Regimental Combat Team. It served in this assignment for six years with, the 1st Battalion being sent to Ft. Richardson, Alaska, and participating in Operation Sweetbrier, an exercise to determine if Alaska could be defended if an attack from the Soviet Union came from over the pole. It was then was assigned as an organic element of the 71st Infantry Division on 10 October 1954. On 15 September 1956, the 4th Infantry was assigned to the 4th Regimental Combat Team for the second time in this capacity and served for nearly a year. On 1 July 1957, the colors of Company B were relieved from assignment to the 4th Regimental Combat Team, reorganized and redesigned Headquarters Company, 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry, and assigned as an organic element of the 3d Infantry Division with duty station at Fort Benning, Georgia. The remaining companies and a mortar battery to comprise the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry were organized for the 1st and 2d Battalions, 15th Infantry Regiment which were already stationed at Fort Benning.

On 22 July 1957, Colonel Seymore B. Satterwhite assumed command of the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry and by 20 July all personnel of the battle group were thoroughly oriented on the ROCID concept. By 15 September 1957 the battle group had completed its organization under ROCID TO&E 7-11T, 1956, thus cadre training commenced in preparation for receiving 1,189 new soldiers straight from civilian life that would bring the unit to combat strength. The 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry received the first 26 men on 12 November 1957. The remainder of the men arrived shortly after, and all of the men completed their basic training in time to go on leave for Christmas. When they returned in January, training was resumed, and training of all phases was completed by 3 April 1958. On 15 February 1958, it officially was reorganized and redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry and assigned to the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division.

On that same date, the 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry was assigned to the separate 2d Infantry Brigade.

Embarkation leaves were held during April, and on 13 May 1958, the 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry boarded the USNS Rose for Bremerhaven, Germany. The unit arrived in Bremerhaven on 22 May 1958 and reached Bamberg on 24 May 1958.

On 2 April 1962, the 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry was inactivated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.

On 18 April 1963 the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division and the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was redesignated and assigned to the 3d Infantry Division. On 3 June 1963, the 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry was inactivated in Germany and on 5 June 1963 the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was activated. The 2d Battle Group, 4th Infantry would later be activated (21 July 1969) as the 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The 3d Battle Group, 4th Infantry would become the 3d Battalion, 4th Infantry and be inactivated at Fairfield, Illinois on 31 December 1965.

In 1965, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry joined the 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division in Aschaffenburg, Germany. Taking part in the many REFORGER training exercises in Germany. The battalion was named "Warrior" Battalion in 1966 to commemorate the long service by the regiment between fighting wars and later protecting Indians in Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and the Great Plains.

The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was reactivated on 21 July 1969. On 18 September 1970, the 56th Field Artillery Brigade, headquartered in Schwaebisch Gmuend, Federal Republic of Germany, assumed control of three Pershing missile firing battalions. The newly arrived 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry provided the infantry defensive support for the missile units. The unit defended the missile battalions from intruding protesters, from the Nationalist Green Party and other elements.

The mission of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was to provide armed security including patrols of the Pershing nuclear missile and missile storage sites — Muetlangen Missile Storage Site (Company A), Von Steuben (Company B), and Red Leg (Company C) Combat Alert Sites (CAS) additional duties included protecting Pershing nuclear systems in the field and dealing with numerous anti-nuclear protests. It also pursued a rigorous infantry training schedule. Initially, HHC (Hurons) and Company A (Apaches) were stationed at Panzer Kaserne in Stuttgart; Company B (Blackfeet) was stationed at Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm; and, Company C (Cherokees) was stationed at Wharton Barracks in Heilbronn.

The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in major exercises each winter at training areas such as Baumholder, Hohenfels Hohenfels, Wildflecken, and Grafenwoehr. This helped to prepare the unit for encounters with Warsaw Pact military forces in the event of an assault on the missile sites. This was considered a very real possibility during the years of the Cold War. In addition each of the line companies rotated each year to Doughboy City, Berlin to train in military operations in an urban terrain (MOUT).

On 18 August 1971, soldiers from the heavy mortar platoon from battalion headquarters were being transported from Ludwigsburg to Grafenwoehr for live fire training exercises aboard a CH-47A helicopter. The helicopter crashed and exploded, killing all 38 on board, including four members of the 4th Aviation Company.[12][13]

In May 1983, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry began to reorganize to the Division 86 concept in the Army of Excellence program by President Ronald Reagan, with the expectation of stopping a Soviet invasion of West Germany at the “Hofsburg Throat.” This caused the battalion to expand to four rifle companies, an anti-armor company and a very large headquarters and headquarters company.

In May 1984, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry began to transition to the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle. The transition was completed in August 1984. In the late 1980s the government again began to reduce the armed forces and the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was listed for inactivation, which took place on 16 December 1987 and the unit was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division. However, the battalion until then known as 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry (Warrior Battalion), then stationed in Aschaffenburg Germany, was reflagged as the 4th Battalion, 7th Infantry (Fighting Fourth), and remained in place as part of the 3d Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division.

The signing of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987), the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989), and the demise of the Soviet Union (1991) signaled the end of the Cold War and resulted in the eventual inactivation of the 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry. In May 1991, the 56th Field Artillery Command and all its subordinate units were inactivated. In the summer of 1990, Company C moved from its Pershing II mission and provided security for Operation Steel Box/Golden Python (chemical weapons retrograde from Germany) at Miesau Army Depot. The unit deployed to secure the temporary storage area at the Miesau rail head, guarding over 100,000 toxic chemical artillery projectiles in steel shipping containers. Company C received the Army Superior Unit Award for flawless execution of this security mission.[14] In November 1990, Company C was the first of the 2d Battalion units to move to the CMTC – Hohenfels, Germany to reactivate as Company C, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry and assume role as OPFOR.

The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was inactive until 2004 when it was reactivated at Fort Polk, Louisiana as part of the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division. The 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2006.

The 3d Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment was reactivated on 16 October 2009 in Germany as part of the 170th Infantry Brigade[15]

OPFOR role

On 16 November 1990, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry was assigned as the Opposing Force (OPFOR) at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany. The battalion consists of three rifle companies, a tank company, a Combat Support Company, and a headquarters and headquarters company. The combat support company was disbanded in 1995 and the platoons reassigned to the HHC. In order to support the USAERUR commander’s training strategy the battalion portrays a brigade tactical group or an insurgency that challenges all the battlefield operating systems of rotational units in force-on-force situations.

The battalion has trained units deploying to Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraqi, and Afghanistan during high intensity conflict rotations, and mission readiness exercises. Additionally, the battalion has deployed forces to other countries to take part in training exercises to include the training of security forces for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.

In addition to its OPFOR mission, the battalion has the same training requirements as other infantry battalions in the army. The battalion conducts squad external evaluations, tank gunnery, antitank gunnery, training for urban operations, marksmanship, and live fire exercises.

Afghanistan

In August 2004 the battalion deployed Company A to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Team Apache was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation (MUC) for its outstanding performance of duty as the only US force in the International Security Assistance Force from August to December 2004.

The MUC citation reads: During the period of 31 August to 12 December 2004, Company A, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry distinguished themselves while in support of the International Security Assistance Force operations led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Afghanistan. They provided superb support to coalition forces supporting a safe and successful Afghanistan National Presidential Election. Throughout the operation the company performed as a lethal, responsive, and relevant combat force directly responsible for supporting security and stabilization forces in theater. Their ability to respond to crisis was superb. Company A, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry’s efforts reflect great credit upon themselves, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United States Army.

In August 2005 the battalion deployed Company D to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Team Dragon was used as a force protection company for the newly formed Afghanistan elections. Team Dragon was awarded the Joint Meritorious Unit Commendation for its outstanding performance of duty. After a successful mission most of Team Dragon returned November 2006.

During 2006, the 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry formed the core of a task force that deployed to Zabol Province in eastern Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom. Along with other elements of the 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, 2–4 Infantry and TF Boar conducted combat operations in support of Combined Forces Command Afghanistan and the International Security Assistance Force.

Starting in July 2006 and ended in January 2011, the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry relieved its sister battalion in Zabol Province, Afghanistan, as part of ISAF's assumption of responsibility for the province. As part of TF Zabul, nominally under Romanian command, 1–4 maintained a reinforced infantry company in the mountainous northern regions of the province, responsible for all combat operations in that area. The battalion rotated companies every 7 to 8 months, starting with C Company, followed in turn by B, A, and D companies. While each task force was deployed, the remaining companies of 1–4 continued their OPFOR mission in Hohenfels, Germany as well as training for their next combat mission in Afghanistan.

2–4 Infantry deployed again in late 2007 to Iraq with 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, this time for 15 months as part of the "surge" strategy. Their deployment ended January 2009.

2–4 Infantry once again deployed to Afghanistan in 2010 under 4th Brigade, 10th Mountain Division in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

As of 7 January 2011 the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry has halted all deployments to Afghanistan after C Company's return, and they now serve only as the OPFOR unit for Hohenfels, Germany.

An article in the 23 February 2012 edition of the Stars & Stripes reported the removal of 17 officers and NCOs from 3d Squadron (Recon & Surveillance), 108th Cavalry Regiment of the 560th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (Georgia ARNG) during a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo "following an Army investigation into allegations about harsh tactics used to initiate junior troops." The article also stated that "Because so many of the Georgian company’s leaders were pulled from their positions, USAREUR recently deployed two Army platoons and a command team from the Hohenfels-based 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry to support the company, [Lieutenant General] Hertling said."[16]

Lineage

First Battalion

  • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as the 4th Infantry
  • Organized May–June 1808 in New England.
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form the 5th Infantry Regiment. Thereafter separate lineage.

Second Battalion

  • Constituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the 14th Infantry Regiment
  • Organized in March 1812 in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 18th and 20th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812) and the 36th and 38th Infantry (both constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 4th Infantry Regiment.
  • 21 August 1816 Unspecified 4th Infantry Regiment companies redesignated as Companies A and B, 4th Infantry Regiment.
  • Consolidated in March 1869 with the 30th Infantry (see 30th Infantry Regiment below) and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Infantry Regiment as follows:

Company A, 4th infantry Regiment Consolidated with Company A, 30th Infantry Regiment

Company B, 4th Infantry Regiment Consolidated with Company B, 30th Infantry Regiment

  • Assigned 1 October 1917 to the 3d Division, and reorganized as follows:

Company A reorganized and redesignated as HHC, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment.

Company B reorganized and redesignated as HHC, 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment.

  • Regiment Stationed at the start of World War II at Fort George Wright Walsh, Washington.
  • Regiment moved to Fort Ord, California on 22 January 1940 to join the 3rd Division.
  • Relieved 15 May 1940 from assignment to the 3d Division, and participated in World War II as a separate infantry regiment.
  • Regiment returned to Fort George Wright Walsh on 23 May 1940, and the location remained the regimental garrison while its units rotated in and out of Fort Lewis, Washington between 1 August 1940 and 26 August 1940.
  • Regiment Deployed from the Seattle Port of Embarkation on 24 December 1940.
  • Regiment arrived at Anchorage, Alaska on 3 January 1941, where it was assigned to the Alaska Defense Command.
  • Regiment arrived on Kodiak Island on 23 November 1942.
  • Regiment arrived on Unalaska Island in 30 November 1942.
  • Regiment posted to Adak Island on 8 December 1942.
  • Regiment Assaulted Attu Island on 11 May 1943, and participated in the Battle For Fish Hook Ridge.
  • Regiment relieved from assignment to Alaskan Defense Command, and returned to Seattle Port of Embarkation on 2 December 1943, and was stationed at Fort Lewis the same date.
  • Regiment reassigned to the US Army Replacement and School Command at Fort Benning, Georgia, on 23 January 1944, where it conducted infantry training to prepare for the expected invasion of the Japanese Home Islands late in 1944.
  • Regiment was at Fort Benning on 14 August 1945, which is when the surrender of the Japanese was announced.
  • Assigned 1 November 1945 to the 25th Infantry Division. The incumbent personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division at Camp Butner, North Carolina, while the regimental records and accoutrements were forwarded to Japan for occupation duty.
  • Inactivated 31 January 1947 in Japan
  • Relieved 1 February 1947 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division
  • Activated 1 October 1948 at Fort Lewis, Washington as a separate regiment.
  • Assigned 10 October 1954 to the 71st Infantry Division
  • Relieved 15 September 1956 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division
  • Reorganized 15 February 1958 as a parent regiment under the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, and assigned as follows:

1st Battle Group assigned to 2nd Infantry Brigade.

2nd Battle Group assigned to 3rd Infantry Division.

  • 1st Battle Group Inactivated 2 April 1962 at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
  • 1st Battle Group relieved from assignment to the 2nd Infantry Brigade, redesignated as the 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, and assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division on 18 April 1963.
  • On 3 June 1963, 2nd Battle Group’s personnel and equipment were reassigned to the 1st Battalion, still with 3rd Infantry Division.
  • 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment activated on 5 June 1963.
  • 2nd Battle Group redesignated at 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment on 21 July 1969 and activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky.
  • Withdrawn 17 January 1986 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
  • 1st Battalion inactivated on 16 December 1987 in Germany, and relieved from assignment to 3rd Infantry Division.
  • 1st Battalion activated on 16 November 1990 in Germany.
  • 2nd Battalion inactivated on 15 May 1991 in Germany.
  • 2nd Battalion redesignated as 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment on 1 October 2005.

3rd Battalion

Re-activated on 15 July 2009, at Baumholder, Germany (under the 170th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, which was formerly 2/1 AD). See webpage for 3–4 Infantry at http://ironwarriorsix.web.officelive.com/default.aspx. Inactivated in October 2012.

30th Infantry Regiment

  • Constituted 3 June 1861 in the Regular Army as the 3rd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, with Companies A and B Constituted 3 May 1861.
  • Organized 23 December 1865 at Fort Hamilton, New York
  • Redesignated 7 December 1866 as the 30th Infantry Regiment
  • Consolidated in March 1869 with the 4th Infantry and consolidated unit designated as the 4th Infantry Regiment. Companies A and B consolidated with identically designated companies in the 4th Infantry Regiment.

Honors

Campaign participation credit

  • War of 1812:
  1. Bladensburg;
  2. McHenry
  • Mexican-American War:
  1. Palo Alto;
  2. Canada;
  3. Resaca de la Palma;
  4. Monterrey;
  5. Siege of Veracruz;
  6. Cerro Gordo;
  7. Churubusco;
  8. Molino del Rey;
  9. Chapultepec;
  10. Puebla 1847;
  11. Tlaxcala 1847
  • American Civil War:
  1. Peninsula Campaign;
  2. Second Bull Run;
  3. Antietam;
  4. Fredericksburg;
  5. Chancellorsville;
  6. Gettysburg;
  7. The Wilderness;
  8. Spotsylvania Court House;
  9. Cold Harbor;
  10. Siege of Petersburg;
  11. Appomattox Campaign
  • Indian Wars:
  1. Tippecanoe;
  2. Seminole Wars;
  3. Black Hawk War;
  4. Little Bighorn Campaign;
  5. Utes;
  6. Oregon 1855;
  7. Oregon 1856;
  8. Washington 1855;
  9. Washington 1856
  • War with Spain (Cuba):
  1. Santiago
  • Philippine-American War (Philippines):
  1. Manila;
  2. Malolos;
  3. Cavite;
  4. Luzon
  • World War I (France):
  1. Aisne;
  2. Champagne-Marne;
  3. Aisne-Marne;
  4. St. Mihiel;
  5. Meuse-Argonne;
  6. Champagne 1918
  • World War II:
  1. Aleutian Islands

Decorations

Notes

1.     ^ a b "Special Unit Designations". United States Army Center of Military History. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.

2.     ^ Museum of the Welch Regiment (41st / 69th Foot) of The Royal Regiment of Wales (24th / 41st Foot) at Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, Wales.

3.     ^ Godfrey, Walter H., editor (1927). "Survey of London: volume 11: Chelsea, part IV: The Royal Hospital". pp. 32–36. Retrieved 23 July 2012.

4.     ^ For a photograph of the replica, see http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/Warof1812/2008/Issue8/c_Chelseaflags.html

 

5.     ^ Horn, Bernd (2008). Show no Fear: Daring Actions in Canadian Military History. Dundurn. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-55002-816-4. Retrieved 29 May 2013.

6.     ^ Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Complete. Project Gutenberg.

7.     ^ Fort Lane – Fort Wiki

 

8.     ^ Fort Reading – Fort Wiki

 

9.     ^ Hart, Herbert M. "Historic California Posts: Posts at San Bernardino". The California State Military Museum. Retrieved 2013-05-28.

10.  ^ Correspondence Relating to the Fourth U.S. Infantry, Operations on the Pacific, 1861

 

11.  ^ "Lineage and Honors, 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 18 March 2011.

12.  ^ "Boeing CH-47A Chinook helicopter 66-19023". Boeing CH-47 Chinook Helicopter Tail Number History. 9 October 2009.

13.  ^ http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/lineages/branches/av/004av.htm

 

14.  ^ http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/lineages/branches/inf/0004in002bn.htm

 

15.  ^ http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/lineages/branches/inf/0004in003bn.htm

 

16.  ^ Vandiver, John (23 February 2012). "17 leaders from Guard company in Kosovo removed amid investigation of abuses". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2013-05-29.

17.  ^ General Orders Number 9. Department of the Army. 1 April 1987.

18.  ^ General Orders Number 30. Department of the Army. 1 July 1987.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/62/PD-icon.svg/12px-PD-icon.svg.png This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "4th Infantry Lineage and Honors"

 

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THE FOURTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY.
By LIEUT. JAMES A. LEYDEN, ADJUTANT 4TH U. S. INFANTRY.

 
The Legion of the United States, by which title the regular army was known from 1792 to 1796, was a theoretically well balanced military organization of four divisions, each division or sub-legion containing Dragoons, Rifles, Artillery and Infantry. Whatever merit this, organization might have had against a civilized enemy in an open or civilized country, it was found to be poorly adapted to the various requirements of Indian warfare or ordinary frontier duties in a wooded country. That the important battle at Miami Rapids was fought and won under this organization was due, not to any particular merit in the organization, but to the admirable discipline instilled into the command by the Commander-in-Chief, General Anthony Wayne. "Train and discipline them for the service they are meant for," wrote Washington. These instructions were so faithfully complied with that it was common remark that the "mad commander" had become a most thorough and painstaking disciplinarian.

The cessation of active Indian warfare, and the occupation of many remote stations, called for a simpler administrative organization, and, pursuant to Act of Congress May 30, 1796, the Legion was disbanded in November 1796, the President arranging and completing out, of the infantry of the sub-legions, four regiments of infantry. The Fourth Infantry was in consequence organized from the infantry of the 4th sub-legion, with Thomas Butler, of distinguished lineage and revolutionary service, as lieutenant-colonel, commandant.

The evacuation, in 1796, of the British military posts in the Northwest, under Jay's treaty, and the occupation of the territory ceded by Spain to the United States, by the treaty of October 27, 1795, necessitated the dispersion of the newly organized regiments to many widely separated stations, the Fourth Infantry going, in June, 1797, to Tennessee and Georgia. In the interval between 1796 and 1802 there were many changes in the regimental organizations, the personnel varying from 30 commissioned officers and 502 enlisted men, in 1796, to 49 officers and 1036 enlisted men in 1799.

Spain having become allied with France, and as strained relations existed between France and the United States, it was for a time doubtful whether peaceable occupation of the lately ceded territory of Louisiana would occur. Emissaries and spies had been sent out from Louisiana to ascertain the temper of the people of the Mississippi Valley upon the subject of separation from the Union and the formation of an independent government under foreign protection. The reports of these agents is interesting

453

reading. One of them, reporting upon the army, says; "There is a strict discipline observed in the army. The soldiers are almost all youths from 16 to 26 years of age. They go through some military evolutions with sufficient precision. With respect to the officers from the lowest to the highest (excepting very few) they are deficient of those qualities that adorn a good soldier, excepting fierceness, and are overwhelmed in ignorance and in the most base vices." In view of the fact that this very spy had been taken in hand by the military and escorted by an officer outside of the United States territory, his judgment may have been somewhat warped.

Occupation of the newly acquired territory was not resisted, and Congress concluded in 1802 to reduce the military establishment. The new law provided for but two regiments of infantry and the Fourth Infantry was, June 1st of that year, disbanded. Some of the officers were retained in other organizations, some resigned and the remainder were honorably discharged.

International affairs in 1808 were in such a condition that the President asked Congress to increase the military strength of the regular army; and by the unparalleled vote, on military matters, of 98 to 16, the House passed a bill providing for an increase of seven regiments of infantry. The Fourth Infantry under this Act was reorganized in the months of May and June, 1808. It was recruited in the Eastern States, and John P. Boyd, of East India fame, was named its first colonel. In the spring of 1809 the organization was completed and the companies were stationed at Boston and various other points in the New England States. No important changes of station occurred until the spring of 1811, when the regiment was ordered to concentrate at Philadelphia, Pa. The companies having arrived at the Lazaretto, a short distance from the city of Philadelphia, orders were then received to proceed to Pittsburgh. In compliance with these orders the regiment started, June 3d, on the march across the State of Pennsylvania, arriving in Pittsburgh on the 28th of the same month. Four weeks had been pleasantly passed in the city when orders directed the regiment to proceed by river to Cincinnati. Arriving at Cincinnati camp was established on the present site of Newport Barracks until August 31st. War Department orders then directed that the regiment proceed to Vincennes, in the Indian Territory. The journey down the Ohio was resumed. The regiment having made the portage at the falls, continued down the river to the mouth of the Wabash, and thence up that stream to Vincennes, experiencing many hardships and difficulties owing to the size of the boats and the difficult current of the stream. At Vincennes the regiment was joined by a force of militia and volunteers, and August 27th the entire command left the trading post and marched up the river to a point near the present town of Terre Haute, where a post called Fort Harrison was built. The Prophet,�brother of Tecumseh and leader of the Indians then causing trouble,�refused all overtures, and November 6th found the command within three miles of his village.

On the following morning, before dawn, the Indians made a furious attack upon all sides of the camp, and the desperate contest continued until daylight enabled the troops to discover their enemies; vigorous bayonet charges

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then drove the Indians from the field. The coolness and discipline of the regiment undoubtedly saved the command from annihilation. Out of 300 present the regiment lost 77 in killed and wounded, including four officers, one of whom was mortally wounded by tomahawk.

Owing to want of supplies and proper accommodation for the large number of wounded, the little army returned to Fort Harrison, (where Captain Snelling's company was left as a garrison) and thence to Vincennes for the winter.

In the spring Of 1812 the Indians to the north were causing much trouble and there were strong probabilities of a war with Great Britain, whose agents were identified with the Indian difficulties. General Hull, on account of his knowledge of the Indians and his former good record, had been given command of all the forces in the Northwest, and the regiment was accordingly ordered to join other troops under his immediate command.

In obedience to these orders the regiment walked from Vincennes to Cincinnati and thence to Urbana, arriving at the latter place July 3d, the day before the receipt of the declaration of war against England. General Hull's command arrived at Detroit on July 6th, after a most arduous and trying march through the forests of Ohio. On the 12th it crossed the river for "an invasion and conquest of Upper Canada." Camp was established at Sandwich, on the Canadian side of the river, and the troops remained there for nearly a month without making hostile demonstration, although the Canadians and Indians were known to be concentrating at Malden, but thirteen miles down the river. A mutinous spirit began to manifest itself on account of this inactivity.

Governor Meigs had forwarded a considerable supply of provisions and clothing for the use of the army, and a small detachment of volunteers, sent to escort the supplies to Sandwich, was surprised and routed by a considerable force of Canadians and Indians. General Hull was prevailed upon later to send an additional force to bring the supplies into camp, and the Fourth Infantry, under the command of the youthful and gallant Lieutenant-Colonel James Miller, was reluctantly ordered upon the duty. Colonel Miller, before starting, briefly harangued his troops, saying: "And now, if there is any man in the ranks of this detachment who fears to meet the enemy, let him fall out and stay behind." None fell out. About 4 o'clock P. M., August 9th, the command reached the vicinity of Maguago, fourteen miles below Detroit. The advance guard, under the command of Captain Snelling, suddenly received from ambush a fierce volley from a mixed force of British, Canadians and Indians, under command of Major Muir of the English army and Tecumseh, the Indian chief. Snelling held his ground with what remained of his little force until the main body formed for the attack. The line moved forward with fixed bayonets and, although receiving a terrific fire from behind breastworks of fallen trees, charged the British and Canadians. Before they had time to reload, the first work was carried and the white men broke and fled, closely pursued by the American troops; the enemy was unable to form behind his second line of breastworks, and, completely routed, made the best of his way to the river and crossed to the other side. The Indians, thus deserted by their white allies, soon broke and

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fled in their turn, disappearing in the forest. Colonel Miller determined to march at once on Malden, but at sundown he was met with a peremptory order from General Hull to return to Detroit. The loss to the Fourth Infantry was 58 killed and wounded.

On August 16, 1812, one week from the battle of Maguago, and with troops flushed and enthused with the success of that battle, General Hull basely surrendered his entire command, without a show of resistance, to less than its own numbers of British, Canadians and Indians. As one of the results of this base surrender, the regiment lost a beautiful stand of colors, presented to it by the ladies of Boston when it was stationed in the Eastern States.

The court-martial which tried General Hull found him guilty of "cowardice and neglect of duty," and sentenced him "to be shot dead and to have his name stricken from the rolls of the army." Clemency was recommended, and the President, mitigating the sentence, ordered that "the rolls of the army are no longer to be debased by having upon them the name of Brigadier-General Hull."

After the surrender the officers and men of the regiment were taken as prisoners of war to Montreal, Canada, suffering great hardships on the way from excessive ill-treatment and the want of even the plainest food. Arriving at Montreal on the evening of September 27, 1812, the regiment was met by crowds of people who had collected, as they said, "to have a peep at General Hull's exterminating Yankees." A band of music joined the escort and struck up the much admired ditty, "Yankee Doodle," in which it was joined by all the men who could whistle the tune. When they ceased to play, "Yankee Doodle" was loudly called for by the regiment. At last, mortified at their conduct, the band began "Rule Britannia," which was cheered by the multitude, but the men continued their favorite song, some singing and others whistling, till the barracks were reached.

From Montreal the regiment was sent to Quebec, and the men confined on board transports in the river. Many men died during their imprisonment from the ill-usage they had received. Finally the regiment was exchanged and sent from Quebec on October 29th on an old schooner bound for Boston. On the Gulf of St. Lawrence a furious storm was encountered, and the old schooner became the prey of the waves for several days. Land was finally made at Shelburne, on the east side of the Bay of Fundy. On the voyage thus far no less than fifteen men died and were buried at sea. Two more died at Shelburne, and before Boston was reached, on November 28th, thirty in all had been thrown overboard. Upon arriving in Boston General Boyd, the former colonel of the regiment, did everything in his power to make the men who had served under him at Tippecanoe comfortable.

Early in 1813 recruiting for the regiment began. The recruits were collected and the regiment assembled and organized, under the direction of Lieutenant-Colonel Darrington, at Greenbush, opposite Albany, New York. During the continuance of the war, the regiment served in the district including northern New York and Vermont. Such of the companies as had been organized participated in the battle of Chateaugay River. Lower

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Canada, on October 26, 1813. In the following year detachments were present at the battles of La Cole Mill and at the siege of Plattsburg.

Upon the reduction of the army in 1815 many regiments were consolidated to give a smaller number of regimental organizations, and the Fourth Infantry was, with five other regiments, consolidated to form the Fifth Infantry. In the same way three regiments, the Twelfth, Fourteenth and Twentieth, were consolidated and called the Fourth Infantry. The official army register has for many years announced other regiments as forming the Fourth Infantry, but careful investigation shows that the Army Register is partially in error in this respect.

The War Department has ruled that by these consolidations, the distinguished services of the regiment prior to May 15, 1815, are to be credited to the Fifth Infantry, and that the Fourth Infantry, in a similar way, inherited the records of the regiments consolidated into its organization. The names Fort Niagara, Fort George, Beaver Dams, Chrystler's Fields, Chippeway and Cook's Mill are therefore borne upon the regimental colors, although in none of these battles did the regiment or any portion of it participate.

After the reorganization of the regiment it was ordered South, owing to difficulties with the Creek and Seminole Indians in Florida and Alabama. For several years its history was one of continual marching and countermarching, building cantonments and opening military roads through the wilderness, the policy of the general government then being that the Infantry arm of the service should build its own barracks and open roads through the Indian country.

In the spring of 1817 the regiment marched from South Carolina and Georgia to Alabama, and proceeded thence to Florida to operate under the command of Major-General Jackson, against the Spanish forces in Pensacola harbor.

It would be tedious and uninteresting to detail the many changes of station that occurred in the southern country during the distressing Seminole wars. Troops were changing and moving about continually, and when not moving were occupied in building quarters for their protection.

In 1831, the regimental headquarters were at Baton Rouge, La., and there seemed to be an intention to withdraw the regiment from its intermittent service in Florida.

The Black Hawk War began in 1832 and two companies were sent up the Mississippi to reinforce General Atkinson's command at Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, Wis. From Fort Crawford these companies returned to Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Ill., and while at the latter place the cholera made its appearance among the troops. General Scott's characteristic order on the subject is still preserved among the records of the regiment, an extract from it reading as follows: "that every soldier or ranger who shall be found drunk or sensibly intoxicated, after the publication of this order, be compelled as soon as his strength will permit, to dig a grave at a suitable burying place, large enough for his own reception, as such graves cannot fail soon to be wanted, for the drunken man himself or some drunken companion. This order is given as well to serve as a punishment for drunk-

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enness, as to spare good and temperate men the labor of digging graves for their worthless companions."

Desertion from the army, as in more recent times, was not infrequent. Two years in the Leavenworth Military Prison, learning some useful trade, contrasts peculiarly with the following, not an isolated case: "The Court found him guilty as Charged and Sentences him to be tied to a stack of arms and to receive ten lashes for Five Successive Mornings with a Cat o' Nine Tails on his bare Back in presence of the command, to have his head and Eye Brows Shaved, to forfeit all pay and travelling expenses and to be Drumd out of Service."

The regiment made several changes of station to and from Florida, and finally returned to take part in the Seminole War of 1836. Rarely, if ever, have troops been called upon for service under such trying circumstances as in this war. The region in which the troops were compelled to operate consisted of swamps, overflowed thickets, and dense tropical forests of unknown extent. Poisonous insects and serpents under foot and an atmosphere reeking with fevers and disease overhead. The enemy to be subdued was cunning and active as he was cruel and treacherous. For days at a time the troops waded in the swamps or patrolled the streams in search of an enemy who only showed himself when in sufficient numbers to massacre isolated detachments. Treachery and deceit resulted from every conference with the Indians. The war was only temporarily brought to a close by the questionable seizure of Osceola under a flag of truce.

In all this war, which lasted about seven years and cost the Government hundreds of lives and millions of treasure, the Fourth Infantry bore an honorable part. It participated in nearly all of the engagements and lost severely in killed ' and wounded, and, what in that region was worse, in missing, the totals for the regiment being: Officers killed in action or died of disease, 6; men killed in action or died of disease, 128. December 20, 1835, Captain and Brevet Major Dade volunteered to command a detachment, consisting of two companies of artillery and eleven of the men of his own company, that had been ordered to proceed from Fort Brooke to Fort King, the Seminole agency. When about 55 miles on its way the detachment was attacked by a large force of Indians in ambush. The fight lasted from eight o'clock in the morning until the middle of the afternoon, December 28th. Three privates only escaped, and, though badly wounded, made their way back to Fort Brooke with the news of the massacre. On February 22, 1836, General Gaines, with a force including seven companies of the Fourth Infantry, arrived on the battle ground and buried the remains of Major Dade and his command.

General Scott's campaign which followed was not decisive and the next year there were great preparations for a campaign under General Thomas G. Jesup, Quartermaster General of the Army. Troops and supplies were gathered, and marching and countermarching began. The Fourth Infantry most of the time operated as an independent command. The movements during the winter resulted in bringing in the king, Micanopy, with a considerable number of his warriors. Campaigning then for a time ceased.

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In 1837 there was "marching up and down, to and fro, hither and yon," and very little accomplished. On Christmas Day, however, one of the severest engagements in the war took place on the shores of Lake Okeechobee, Colonel Zachary Taylor, First Infantry, commanding. The six companies of the Fourth Infantry engaged lost an aggregate of 22 killed and wounded.

In May, 1838, the regiment was en route to the Cherokee Nation in Tennessee, in connection with the removal of the Cherokee Indians by General Scott. Then followed several years of peace, marked principally by severe labor and sickness incident to building roads, through a region so unhealthy that civilians could not be engaged to perform the work. In 1841 the fourth return to Florida took place, and a portion of the regiment took part in the final campaign of the Seminole War. But little skirmishing and few casualties from fighting occurred. The clothing and food supplies of the Indians were captured, and finally the chief, Halleck Tustenuggee, was, taken prisoner by an artifice justified only by necessity. Soon after his capture the last of the warrior bands was removed from Florida.

In September, 1842, the regiment was ordered to take station at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., where it remained until the proposed annexation of Texas, in 1844, led to rumblings of war with Mexico. As a part of the "Army of Observation" the regiment was moved to Grand Ecore, La., where it remained until July, 1845, being moved thence to Corpus Christi, Texas, as a part of the "Army of Occupation." The first act of war on the part of Mexico was the murder, on April 10th, of Colonel Cross, assistant quartermaster-general, a few miles from camp, by a roving party of banditti. Lieutenant Porter, Fourth Infantry, with a small party, was sent out to search for the body of Colonel Cross, and on the return of the party it was ambuscaded, Lieutenant Porter and one man being killed. Soon after the Government recognized a state of war existing between the United States and Mexico, and preparations were made for an invasion of the territory of the latter.

When General Taylor's army reached the Rio Grande from Corpus Christi, General Mejia issued a pronunciamento: "The water of the Rio Grande is deep, and it shall be the sepulchre of these degenerate sons of Washington." Operations did not cease on account of this proclamation. The Army of Occupation, about noon of May 8th, met and engaged the Mexican army under General Ampudia at Palo Alto.

Early on the following morning the enemy retreated, and, about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, took up a position at Resaca de la Palma. The Fourth Infantry was deployed on the right of the road leading to his position, and at various points became briskly engaged, and finally, keeping as good order as the close chapparal would permit, charged and captured the camp where the headquarters of the Mexican general-in-chief were established. All his official correspondence was captured at this place, together with a large amount of ammunition, some 400 mules, saddles and every variety of army equipage.

At Monterey, the regiment consisted of but six reduced companies, four of which participated in the assault of the works in the lower part of the city

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the first day of the battle. The regiment charged through a cross fire from the Black Fort and the batteries. A mistake in orders led to the charge, somebody had blundered, and about one-third of the men engaged in the charge were killed and wounded in the space of a few minutes. The regiment halted in a place of safety�what there was left of it. In a short time the advance began again and the troops reached the suburbs. A little battery covering the approaches to the lower end of the city was captured and turned upon another work of the enemy. An entrance into the east end of the city was now secured. An advance was made to within a square of the plaza, not without heavy loss, when the ammunition began to give out. Lieutenant Grant made a dashing and perilous ride back to ask that ammunition be forwarded. Before it could be collected the remnants of the two regiments, the Third and Fourth Infantry, returned. The following day the city capitulated.

Early in 1847 the regiment was ordered, as a part of the force sent from General Taylor's army, to proceed to Vera Cruz and join the army under General Scott. It arrived at Vera Cruz in March and participated in the siege of that place. By April 16th it had arrived at Plan del Rio, near Cerro Gordo, the battle of the latter place taking place on the 17th-18th. Previous to this battle General Santa Anna stated to his army: " I am resolved to go out and encounter the enemy. * * * My duty is to sacrifice myself, and I will know how to fulfil it! Perhaps the American hosts may proudly tread the imperial capital of Azteca. I will never witness such an opprobrium, for I am decided first to die fighting." The general encountered the American army at Cerro Gordo, and lost a leg in the retreat from that battle. Perhaps it may not be improper to state that it was the general's wooden leg that was lost in his hasty retreat.

After Cerro Gordo, the march into the interior was resumed and on May 14th the regiment arrived at Amasoque, 12 miles from Puebla. General Worth here ordered his command to clean up, to make a good appearance upon entering the city the next day. While the muskets were taken apart, and while the pipe-clay was drying upon the white belts, the long roll beat to arms. An immense column of Mexican cavalry was seen to be rapidly approaching. Duncan's battery was run out to meet it, and the regiment was hurried to support the battery. A few rounds of shell emptied many saddles and caused the column to diverge from the road. After the column had passed, the Fourth Infantry was posted as a picket guard several miles beyond Amasoque, in the direction of Puebla. A terrific tropical storm came up during the night and in a short time the corn field where the regiment was lying became a sea of mud. The nice uniforms, the white belts and the men who wore them were covered with Mexican mud, and probably the shabbiest looking regiment ever seen in the regular army was the Fourth Infantry when it entered Puebla on May 15, 1847. The azoteas, the windows and the streets were filled with men and women to look upon these "degenerate sons of Washington."

After Cherubusco, where the regiment pursued the fleeing Mexican troops to within a mile and a half of the City of Mexico, came an armistice of two weeks, then operations were actively resumed; Molino del Rey and

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Chapultepec followed in quick successon [sic]. At Molino a storming party was organized, the regiment furnishing two officers and 100 men. The mill was carried at the point of the bayonet, but not without the loss of 11 out of the 14 officers who were in the storming party. The remnant of the detachment belonging to the Fourth Infantry joined the regiment in the final assault made in support of the storming party. A fierce and bloody hand-to-hand fight took place before the enemy was finally driven from his chosen position. The regiment lost during the day 67 in killed and wounded, including three officers. At Chapultepec, as at Molino, a storming party began the assault, to which the regiment furnished 50 men and 2 officers. Under a terrific storm of shot and shell the party reached the ditch and main wall of the great fortress, scaling ladders were brought up and amid hand-to-hand fighting a lodgment was secured, then, "long continued shouts and cheers carried dismay into the capital." Vigorous resistance was made by the enemy to the rapid pursuit after the fall of the castle; along the line of the great aqueduct and at the several garitás of the city the greatest resistance was encountered. Nothing could withstand the impetuosity of the troops, and by nightfall organized resistance ceased. A detachment of the Fourth Infantry had penetrated half a mile into the city and captured the adjutant-general of the Mexican army.

With the capture of the city active operations ceased. The remnant of the regiment remained for a time as part of the garrison of the city, removing on the gradual withdrawal of the troops to points on the Camino Real until in June, 1848, it was assembled at Jalapa for the return to the United States. Leaving Vera Cruz, the voyage home was short. Camp "Jeff Davis," Pascagoula, Miss., was reached July 23, 1848.

Thus ended the Mexican War for the Fourth Infantry, there having been but one important battle from the Rio Grande to the City of Mexico in which it did not participate.

It lost 8 officers and 59 men killed or mortally wounded; 10 officers and 140 men more or less severely wounded; 4 officers in addition lost their lives by steamboat explosions. In the language of General Grant, "the regiment lost more officers during the war than it ever had present in any one engagement," for during the greater part of the war the regiment had present but six reduced companies.

From Mississippi the regiment was ordered to proceed by sea to New York and there to take station at seven different points on the lakes, between Mackinac and Plattsburg.

Ordinary garrison duties were performed at the stations indicated until June, 1852, when the regiment was concentrated at Fort Columbus, N. Y. H., prior to a journey to the Pacific Coast. Between June 23d and July 4th, 393 recruits were received and assigned to companies. A telegraphic order on July 2d directed the regiment to embark on the Steamship Ohio, a vessel already bearing a full passenger list. In compliance with the order eight companies, with headquarters and band, sailed on July 5th from New York for Aspinwall. The Ohio was commanded by Captain Schenck, afterwards Admiral Schenck, U. S. Navy, and had all told on this voyage 1100 people on board. Aspinwall was reached on July 16th without

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incident, save the extreme discomfort of an overcrowded ship. The rainy season was at that time at its height on the Isthmus, and, what was infinitely worse, the cholera was raging.

The railroad across the Isthmus was completed only to Barbacoas, on the Chagres River. The troops proceeded by rail to that point and by boat to Gorgona, the families and baggage, with one company as a guard, proceeding to Cruces, the distance from the latter point to Panama being shorter than that to be followed by the troops. The roads were almost without bottom, and the contractor had failed to provide pack trains for tents and provisions, as well as for the heavy baggage from Cruces. The main body left Gorgona on July 18th at 1 P. M., struggling along through mud and rain until dark, when it halted and men and officers lay down on the water-soaked ground for the night. Many stragglers there were, and as the vilest of liquor dens existed all along the route, the officers were kept busy in trying to prevent drunkenness and in gathering up stragglers.

The first case of cholera occurred on that first day's march. The second day was like the first, but it brought the column within eight miles of Panama, and early on the third day the men were safely on board the P. S. S. Co.'s steamer Golden Gate, Captain C. P. Patterson, U. S. N., subsequently Superintendent of Coast Survey, commander. The ladies had arrived earlier, but Brevet Captain Grant, R. Q. M., experienced the greatest difficulties in procuring the necessary transportation for the baggage and company remaining as the guard. Finally, after five days' waiting, he resolved to hire in open market, whatever the cost might be. Cholera appeared in the company acting as guard, men dying in six hours from the first symptom. Eight died before the company reached Panama. The disease appeared in an aggravated form among the troops on the Golden Gate. An old hulk was improvised as a hospital and the sick transferred to it. On Tuesday, the 27th, the disease began to subside. Upon the arrival of a small steamer in the evening of that day a dozen knapsacks, that had been left lying and moulding on the Isthmus, were received on board, and the men to whom they belonged seized and opened them to get a change of clothing. Some of these men were taken sick in the act; all were several hours thereafter taken violently with the cholera, and with only a few exceptions died. It was now determined to land all the troops, and accordingly both the well and sick were put ashore on Flamingo Island, the sick being in huts and the well in a few tents and shelters made from sails. The Golden Gate sailed on August 4th, but would only take 450 well people. One company (Auger's), the sick, and most of the women and children were left behind to be forwarded on the next steamer. The Chagres fever became epidemic on board the Golden Gate so that when the command arrived at Benicia, on August 17th, it was almost decimated. August 8th the Steamer Northerner took on board all but four men of Augur's company, who were left in the hospital, and sailed for San Francisco. The company arrived at Benicia August 26th. The total deaths from cholera, fever and allied diseases, from the time the regiment arrived on the Isthmus up to a few weeks after the arrival at Benicia, amounted to one officer and 106 enlisted men.

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The two companies�A (Lieutenant D. A. Russell) and I (Haller's)�that had been left in New York, sailed November 18th on a naval vessel for San Francisco, via Cape Horn. After touching at Montevideo and Robinson Crusoe Island for fresh fruits and vegetables to avoid scurvy, the companies arrived at San Francisco June 7, 1853, seven months from the date of sailing.

After its arrival on the Pacific Coast the regiment was rapidly dispersed to many and widely distant stations, the headquarters going to Columbia Barracks, afterward Fort Vancouver, and now Vancouver Barracks, in September, 1852, where they with short absences remained until 1861. The following posts�Forts Vancouver, Reading, Humboldt, Dalles, Steilacoom, Jones, Boise, Lane, Yamhill, Orford, Townshend, Hoskins, Walla Walla, Crook, Terwaw, Cascade, Simcoe, Gaston, Chehalis, Yuma and Mojave,�extending from British Columbia on the north to Mexico on the south,�were all garrisoned, and the majority of them built, by companies of the Fourth Infantry, in the interval between 1852 and 1861. Three only of these posts are now occupied by United States troops; the others are abandoned.

Besides the numerous changes which the occupancy of so many posts necessitated, Indian campaigns were not infrequent. The most important campaign was that in Eastern Washington and Oregon in 1855-56 against Indians from many tribes under the able leadership of Chief Kamiarkin, a name now as unknown as the names Spotted Tail, Joseph and Geronimo will be a generation hence.

The vigorous campaign of Colonel Wright, and the summary punishments meted out by the military to all Indian offenders, brought about a peace that has remained unbroken by the greater part of the Indians in the Pacific Northwest to the present day. Humanitarian temporizing and treaty making had little to do with the opening and settlement of the vast region between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast. The only power that an Indian recognizes�uncompromising and unyielding force�was brought home to those of this region in such a way that it is not forgotten to this day, and the result has not been a detriment of the Indians.

In 1859, the movements of troops under the special and unusual instructions of General Harney, the Department commander, gave rise to the San Juan imbroglio. Three companies of the regiment were sent to San Juan Island to reinforce Captain Pickett's command and to secure exclusive jurisdiction over the island by force if necessary. There were five British men-of-war, carrying 167 guns and manned by 2140 sailors and marines, in the harbor. So great a preponderance of force in favor of the British, considered in connection with Captain Pickett's most positive assertions concerning his position, no doubt determined the British commander to await the coming of General Scott and the investigation he was ordered to make, as well as to wait for positive information from England upon the matter at issue. After General Scott's arrival, the question at issue, in this early forerunner of the Civil War, so far as the military were concerned, was speedily determined, and the companies of the Fourth Infantry were quietly withdrawn. During the stay of the troops the most pleasant relations ex-

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isted between the officers of the English fleet and the American officers on shore.

In the interval from 1852 to 1861 the Fourth Infantry contained as many distinguished and prominent officers as were ever associated together in one regiment. "The regiment was a home and all were proud of it." There is no need to comment on such names as Buchanan, Augur, Alden, Bliss, Grant, Sheridan, Judah, R. N. Scott, Hunt, Hodges, Wallen, D. A. Russell, Prince, Alvord, Kautz, Macfeeley, Crook and many others.

All were tried in the balance and not found wanting in the patriotism, wisdom and valor reposed in them. The names of many Fourth Infantry officers are indelibly woven in the web of our country's history, and so long as valor, honor and patriotism exist in our land, they will be among the names men most delight to honor.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, the regiment was stationed at ten different posts on the Pacific slope from Puget Sound to the Gulf of California. Remote as these stations were from the stirring events occurring in the east they were not without grave consideration of the results likely to follow the secession of the States. Many of the officers were of southern birth or family connection and as the clouds darkened all recognized that the time had come when each must determine for himself the path of duty and honor. It anything was wanting to emphasize the necessity for decision it was the order concentrating most of the companies at Camp Sumner, San Francisco, and the subsequent departure of the regiment for service in the east.

Of those officers on duty with the regiment or of recent service with it, five of junior rank resigned. They subsequently entered the Confederate service but none achieved distinction. The remainder of the officers, although some were of close southern affiliations and consequently under a considerable measure of suspicion, served faithfully and well, true to the flag and true to the regiment. If any served more honorably or more faithfully than the officers of the Fourth Infantry, all honor to them.

To a greater extent than other regiments, the Fourth Infantry suffered from the large number of officers detached for service with the Volunteers or duty in the staff departments. The enlisted strength also, due to the large bounties offered and the somewhat more agreeable service in the Volunteers, soon became reduced by the ordinary attrition of the service. It was only partially renewed at irregular intervals, and from the ten strong companies that crossed the Long Bridge on March 10, 1862, but five companies with 173 enlisted men were present at Gettysburg the next year.

The limits of this paper preclude more than the briefest chronicle of the service of the regiment during the Civil War. The history of the Regular brigade of the Army of the Potomac is the history of the Fourth Infantry, except for a brief time in 1864 when the regiment was attached to the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps.

From the trenches before Yorktown to Camp Lovell near Gaines' Mill, thence upon a reconnoissance to find Stonewall Jackson's corps and through the Seven Days' battle which followed his discovery. In the movement across the Chickahominy the regiment was the last to cross the already

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partly destroyed "Grapevine Bridge." At Savage Station the train conveying the regimental records, baggage and supplies, was burned to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy; and for nearly a week, officers and men had to eat and shelter themselves what they could forage. Arriving at Malvern the regiment was placed in the line of battle and sustained its position throughout the day and night. From Harrison's Landing to Acquia Creek, thence to Warrenton and through the second Bull Run battle and retreat to Arlington Heights. Then to Antietam, through the battle and return to Falmouth; then the Fredericksburg battle; followed later by the famous "Mud March" and return to Falmouth. This in turn was followed by the Chancellorsville campaign, where a hasty cup of coffee after severe duty on the skirmish line was interrupted by the 11th Corps in its hasty and unorganized retreat; then a return again to Falmouth and, after a brief time, on the march which terminated July 2d at Gettysburg. The remnant of the regiment participated in the battle about Round Top and shared in the losses of 50 officers and 920 men killed and wounded in the brigade having only 2500 men at the opening of the battle. After Gettysburg the retreating enemy was followed until, July 17th, the regiment reached Fayetteville, Va.; from thence it returned to the Rappahannock and Alexandria, thence to be ordered August 15th to New York to assist in suppressing the Draft Riots. A pleasant camp of three weeks in Washington Square was appreciated; as also the subsequent station at Forts Tompkins and Wood until April 25, 1864. Then ordered to the front, the regiment joined the 9th Corps near Alexandria and participated in the battle of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna River, Tolopotomy Creek and their connecting skirmishes. In one of these latter when a skirmish line was falling back, the brigade commander gave the command, "Rally on the Fourth Infantry," a command not strictly according to the drill book but it answered its purpose. June 22, 1864, the regiment, now numbering but 134 men for duty, was ordered to City Point as guard to General Grant's headquarters. This duty it performed until the surrender of Appomatox. Then followed a tour of provost duty in Richmond and, July 15, 1865, a return to New York harbor. While stationed here a detachment with a number of officers was sent to West Point conveying the colors of the regiment, including some that had been carried in the Mexican War. The Corps of Cadets was paraded and joined the escort of the tattered and shot ripped flags to the Post Chapel where they were finally deposited.

From the harbor stations the regiment was ordered to occupy the Lake posts from Plattsburg to Detroit. In 1866 several companies participated in suppressing the Fenian Raid, capturing several car loads of warlike munitions. From the Lakes in March, 1867, the regiment was ordered for service on the plains in the Department of the Platte. Then followed a period of long marches, building of posts and cantonments, furnishing guards for constructing the Pacific railroad, and minor Indian troubles. The consolidation with the 30th Infantry came in 1869 with the companies widely separated at remote stations.

In 1871 orders directed the regiment to stations in Kentucky and the next year a change to Arkansas. A year and a half of civilization was fol-

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lowed by a return to frontier service in the Department of the Platte. Most of the posts from Omaha to Old Camp Brown were occupied at intervals until 1886. Every variety of service including the larger Indian campaigns of 1876 and 1879 was interspersed between the not always quiet and secure duties of garrison life.

In July, 1886, the regiment after 17 years service in the Platte valley, was ordered to Idaho and Washington where it has since remained occupying Fort Sherman, Fort Spokane and Boise Barracks.

Thus ends the chronicle. Let him who may point to more honorable and distinguished service faithfully performed.

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